Wildlife Techniques Final- New

  1. Botulism (avian)
    • Remains viable for long time in environment
    • caused by toxin, limber neck in birds (drowns waterfowl)
    • outbreaks occur in certain conditions (declining water levels, high pH, warm water, reduced O2)
    • Maggots eat dead waterfowl, birds eat infected maggots/flies
    • Controls: fluctuating water levels, diminish fly population, remove animal carcasses
  2. Tularemia (mammalian)
    • common in
    • rodents and rabbits, bacterial (Francesella
    • tularensis).  Look for lesions on
    • liver, inflammation of organs. 
    • Transmitted by fleas and ticks. 
    • Humans can contract, can be life threatening if left unthreatened.
  3. Brucellosis (mammalian)
    • found in
    • elk, bison, caribou, and reindeer. 
    • Bacterial disease (Brucella
    • ssp.).  Transmission by accidental
    • ingestion of bacteria that are shed by aborting animals.  Concern over transmission from wildlife to cattle.
  4. Scarcoptic mange (mammalian)
    found primarily in red foxes and coyotes; parasitic arthropod disease caused by mite Scarcoptes scabiei.  Erratic behavior in advanced stages.  Loss of hair and thick, crusty skin.  Tend to have outbreaks in 20 year cycles.
  5. Rabies (mammalian)
    all mammals susceptible to rabies.  High risk species include raccoons, foxes, skunks, and bats. Viral disease caused by rhabdovirus.  Dumb rabies vs. furious rabies.
  6. Aspergillois
    • fungus
    • can kill turkeys and other seed eating birds
  7. Sacrosporidiosis
    • Rice breast
    • common in waterfowl
    • protozoan parasites
    • highly visible cysts on breasts
    • does not affect birds or humans
  8. Lead poisoning
    • common in waterfowl and raptors
    • ingestion of lead shot and sinkers
    • experience starvation prior to death (hatchet breast)
    • Toxoicosis: gizzard will get compacted, green cloaca
  9. Avian Cholera
    • bacterial, highly infection
    • non-native (from Asia)
    • Source from poultry farm carcasses
    • will kill populations rapidly
    • birds look healthy until necropsy, when lesion on liver and heart.
    • Controls: early detection, removal of carcasses, habitat management (flood area to dilute cholera)
  10. Distemper
    • Viral
    • mammalian
  11. Canine parvo
    • viral
    • mammalian
  12. Brain worm
    • Parasitic nematode
    • mammalian (avian eye worm)
  13. Sylvatic plague
    • Bacterial disease
    • mammalian
  14. Pros and Cons of Point Counts
    Advantages: thoroughly sample patchy habitats.  Known distances can be flagged.  Easier to represent all habitat types.

    Disadvantages: may disrupt target species, less efficient, may miss rare species.
  15. Pros and Cons of Line Transects
    Advantages: better spatial and temporal coverage, more efficient 

    Disadvantages: "requires" perpendicular distance, may under-sample certain habitat types, and many biases associated with road transects.
  16. Distance Sampling Assumptions
    • 1) Probability of detecting animal on transect is 1
    • 2) Distances measured without error
    • 3) Populations are closed during surveys
    • 4) No responsive mvt prior to detection
  17. Distance sampling data must include:
    • -distance and # of birds
    • -priori covariates (influence detection/density)
    • -UTM's for density surface modeling
  18. Program Distance
    • -easy user interface
    • -robust, empiracal, unbiased parameter estimates
    • -goodness of fit
    • -free
  19. Two important sources of variation for site occupancy
    • 1) Space: point of occupancy modeling is to provide inferences for areas that are too large to sample.
    • 2) Detectability: few animals 100% detected
  20. Purpose of Occupancy Modeling
    • - distribution studies
    • - meta-population studies
    • - monitoring and management performance
  21. Assumptions and biases of occupancy modeling
    • -sites are assumed to be closed
    • -species are correctly identified 
    • -probability of detecting a species at one site is independent of other sites
  22. Definition of telemetry
    a technology that allows for remote measurement and reporting of information
  23. VHF
    • -most commonly used
    • -wide ranges of sizes
    • -considerations: weights, battery size/type, power, antenna type, frequency.
  24. GPS Transmitter
    • -combo of GPS and satellite
    • -highest accuracy but very expensive
    • -heavier
    • -can be solar powered
    • -allows for more data collection
  25. Satellite transmitters
    • -moderate accuracy, expensive
    • -lighter than GPS combo
    • -use PTT
    • -processing centers deliver results to users
    • -Argo satellites
  26. Geolocators
    • relatively inexpensive, but
    • inaccurate.  Uses sunrise and
    • sunset.  Requires recapture.
  27. Transmitter attachment for fish
    body implants, esophageal implants, external mounted, external saddle-mount.
  28. Transmitter attachment for terrestrial mammal
    body implant, collars, tail tag.
  29. Transmitter attachment for birds
    • backpack, glue-on, belly band, leg band, necklace, prong-suture, subcutaneous implants,
    • tail-mount, tarsal-jess, patagial, body implant.
  30. Reptile transmitter attachment
    body implant, glue-on, subcutaneous implant
  31. Marine Mammal
    templetag (more for ID, tag with electronic code), head-mount, back mount.
  32. Transmitter options
    • -mortality switch
    • -temperature sensor
    • -wet/dry (used on aquatic mammals to determine when in/out of water)
    • -depth sensor
    • -pressure sensor
    • -activity sensor
  33. Yagi
    • antenna type
    • most common, easy to use
    • very directional
    • back signal can occur if signals bounce around terrain
  34. H-type
    • not as powerful
    • directionality can be a problem with them
    • good in dense vegetation, small
  35. Dipole
    • Antenna type; omni-directional
    • good for large study areas
    • need additional antenna for homing
  36. Loop Antennae
    • antenna type used for lower frequencies
    • lower frequencies travel further
  37. Scanning receiver
    • cheapest
    • few channels (like 50)
  38. Standard receiver-data logger
    • Up to 4,000 channels
    • Data logger function can be used at a stationary site where it logs locations at regular intervals
  39. Coded reciever-data logger
    allows for 25-100 unique individual codes per channel/frequency
  40. Scientific receiver
    • no data logger
    • no coding
    • cost effective
  41. Remote data platform
    • Stationary, records data at regular intervals
    • generates survival or presence/absence data
    • can get info by email on modern ones
    • satellite
  42. Key assumptions of telemetry studies
    biologists assume that data from the set of observed individuals are representative of patterns of the overall target populations
  43. Telemetry study considertions
    • age, gender, time of day, season
    • spatial scale of sampling
    • When do you want your locations and how often?
  44. Planning telemetry studies
    • set clear study objectives
    • have a priori questions
    • plan a pilot
    • animal selection (maximize inferential bounds)
    • biological considerations
    • get data from different times of day
    • may have to have aerial flights to locate dispersed birds
  45. Home range estimate data requirements
    30-50 locations
  46. 6 types of telemetry data collection
    • Non-direction- presence absence 
    • direct tracking
    • triangulation
    • global positioning system units 
    • platform terminal transmitters 
    • global location sensing units
  47. Non-directional telemetry data
    • typically done with automated receivers
    • not precise
    • detection distance is error rate
    • presence/absence or survival; not for detailed habitat use or behavior
  48. Direct tracking
    • homing; directly approach the signal
    • not good for animals that flee or change behavior when approached
    • required for tag retrieval
    • should be no error if animal or tag is seen
    • useful for knowing exact location of animal
  49. Triangulation telemetry data
    • can be done with 2 locations, more preferable and more accurate
    • take a bearing with compass, use landmark to pinpoint azimuth.
    • program LOCATE
  50. Declination
    the difference between magnetic north and true north
  51. Global positioning system
    • determine location based on time
    • must retrieve system or get near enough (at least 5-10 km) to remotely download (now can be done to cells)
    • 20-200 m accuracy
  52. Platform terminal transmitters
    • uses satellites and the Doppler principle to create ellipsoid of potential locations
    • difficulty detecting signals in areas with high electromagnetic interference
    • ARGOS commercially operates the satellites and provides quality rankings for data points
  53. Global location sensing units
    • geolocators 
    • longitude estimated by local noon or midnight
    • error averages 200-400 km
  54. Sources of bias for radio telemetry
    • radio-marked animals may impact animal behavior
    • terrain, vegetation, and weather can increase error
    • observer effects
    • seek to minimize bias through detailed planning
  55. Telemetry data data analysis
    • must consider autocorrelation
    • survival analysis
    • resource use and selection
    • home range estimates: minimum convex polygon vs kernel estimates
  56. UTM
    • metric based version of
    • latitude/longitude.  Northings (lat) and
    • Eastings (long).
  57. Proximate Analysis
    separates food into 6 chemical constituents (water, ether extract/crude fat, crude fiber/digestible carbohydrate, crude protein, and ash/minerals).
  58. Bomb calorimeter
    • estimates gross energy of
    • food (through complete oxidation)
  59. Kjeldahl technique
    a food is digested with a strong acid to release nitrogen.  Amount of protein is calculated from the nitrogen concentrations of the food.
  60. Soxhlet Apparatus
    • ether extraction of dried,
    • homogenized carcasses to determine fat composition.
  61. Detergent analysis
    break down of fiber
  62. Blood urea nitrogen
    • used as an index for protein
    • nutrition of mammals (however, starved animals can have higher blood urea
    • because they’re breaking down their own muscle).
  63. TOBEC
    • Total body electrical conductivity
    • can use electrical conductivity to determine percent water (inversely correlated with fat)
    • could overestimate due to inability to remove fat from GI tract
  64. Corpus luteum
    • counting these in the ovary gives an
    • idea of ovulation rate
    • involves collecting a cross section of ovary and
    • examining it.
  65. Corpus rubra
    pink marking on ovary to estimate how many young the doe has produced
  66. Placental scars
    placental scares are pigmented areas of uterine tissue marking sites of previous placental attachment
  67. Aggregate percent
    average percent of food item for each species.
  68. Percent occurrence
    based on the number of individuals that fed on the food divided by the total number of individuals collected; frequency occurrence of food item among the population
  69. Characteristics for good nutritional condition index
    • -Should be sensitive to slight changes in nutritional status
    • -should be specific in its indications
    • -should involve collection of tissues or measurements easily obtained from live or dead by relatively unskilled personnel
    • should
    • -should measure condition of different age groups and sexes at different times of the year and not be affected by the stress of collection
    • -should be objective and reproductible
  70. Mammalian nutritional condition indices
    • -whole body fat (soxhlet method)
    • -skeletal measurements and weights (e.g. femur: hind foot ratio)
    • -Kidney fat index (highest in late summer, low in march for deer)
    • -marrow fat (white means depleted)
    • -blood parameters (corticosterone, blood urea)
  71. Mammalian order of fat depletion
    • Subcutaneous fat (rump and saddle)
    • abdominal
    • bone marrow fat
  72. Avian nutritional condition indices
    • Body weight (40-60% of overall condition); compare with wing chord
    • Discrete fat deposits
    • Percent water (TOBEC)
    • Protein Index: primarily used for waterfowl to determine fate of protein during reproduction.  Grind up bird.  Do study early spring.
    • Bone marrow fat (uncommon)
  73. Avian order of fat depletion
    • Abdominal
    • Subcutaneous
    • Muscle/proteins
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Wildlife Techniques Final- New
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