__________ is responsible for the repolarization of pacemaker cells.
An increase in PK
During ventricular ejection, ________.
the left ventricular pressure is greater than the aortic pressure
the semilunar valves are open
A heart murmur that occurs primarily during diastole and is caused from a backflow of blood is __________.
aortic valve regurgitation
The end-diastolic volume minus the end-systolic volume is the __________.
The SA node is innervated by ________.
the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
What is the Cardiac Output of a hospitalized person in intensive care whose heart rate is 100 beats per minute, systolic pressure is 120 mmHg, diastolic pressure is 80 mmHg, end-systolic volume is 0.07 liters, end-diastolic volume is 0.12 liters, and whose mean atrial pressure is 10 mmHg?
close to 5L/min
The portion of osmotic pressure exerted by ________ in the blood is known as oncotic pressure.
Blood pressure is usually measured in the _______ artery, which is reflective of ________ pressure.
If a blood vessel constricted to half of its original diameter, to keep the flow rate constant through the vessel, the pressure exerted upon that vessel would need to _________.
become 16x greater
Any change in relative distribution of cardiac output to an organ is typically due to changes in ________.
resistance of that organ's vascular bed
Veins function as _______ reservoirs due to their ________ compliance.
In the lymphatic system, BIG molecules or debris tend to move _________.
from interstitium, into lymphatics, towards plasma
Baroreceptors respond to __________, which is/are altered by mean arterial pressure.
the changes in stretch of the blood vessel wall
Congestive heart failure on the left side of the heart results in ________.
increased venous pressure
Which answer best describes a myocardial infarction?
B) a fibrillation of the heart
A normal hematocrit value is approximately ________ (%).
What hematopoietic growth factor controls red blood cell synthesis, and what organ releases it?
Platelets are best described as ________.
cell fragments from megakaryotes
The "string-like" structures directly attached to heart valves to keep them closed are __________.
What would be the direct effects of β-blockers on heart function (given the same amount of adrenaline)?
It would contract less strongly
Normal blood pH is around _________.
The ________ is bounded by the interior surface of the chest wall and exterior surface of the lung.
At rest, an expiration is a(n) _________ process that involves _________.
passive; relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals
What is a typically normal intrapleural pressure RELATIVE to a typical outside pressure?
What benefit are corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma?
They reduce inflammation of the airways.
_________ refers to the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single breath during unforced breathing.
Factors affecting lung compliance are lung ________ and _________.
elasticity; surface tension
The conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate in the blood occurs primarily within the ________.
A deficiency of oxygen is called _______.
Which statement below best describes the Bohr Effect regarding oxygen binding to hemoglobin?
B) Decreased [H+] increases probability for oxygen and hemoglobin association.
Pulmonary edema describes a condition where he uptake of oxygen and unloading of carbon dioxide is reduced as a consequence of a(n) __________.
thickening of the diffusion barrier
In order to transport bicarbonate out of the erythrocyte while maintaining electroneutrality, a ________ molecule is transported into the erythrocyte at the same time bicarbonate moves out.
The medullary Respiratory Center primarily concerned with routine inspiration is the _________.
DRG (Dorsal Respiratory Group)
BIO 377 Exam 2
Exam 2 questions from BIO 377 at UMaine (Fall 2014).