1. Antonio Vivaldi
    • (1678-1741)
    • Born in venice,son of a violinist
    • Age 20 he was ordained as priest,Know as the "red haired priest/Red priest"
    • Maestro de'comcerti at the four famous music schools in Venice for a good portion of the career
    • conductor of pieta conservatory
    • music writted for young ladies who were orphaned, living at a charitable institution of religous nature (conservatorio del'ospedale della Pieta
    • Much written for concerts at the conservatorio-
    • high expectation in virtuosity from his performers(the girls)
    • Despite his fame ,accomplishments , and a signifigant salary, he died really poor and buried in a paupers grave in Veinna
  2. Antonio's music style
    • Novle use of rapid scale passages, Extended arpeggios, Contrasting registers contributed to the development of violin styles & techniques
    • Love of brilliant colour
    • Involved in the exploration of new instrumental styles which meant the instruments didn't have to linked to vocal music (wrote programmatic music which is still unusual)
    • Known as the "father of concerto"
  3. Vivaldi's Works
    • Over 230 violin concertos, Including Le Quattro stagoini (the four seasons),L'Estro armonico(the spirit of harmons or musical insperation)op.3,and La Cetra(the lyre)op.9
    • solo concertos for the cello,oboe,flute,recorder
    • Double Concertos,Ensemble Concertos
    • Chamber music,including sonatas for the violin,cello flute movements(Gloria),Magnificat,paslams,motets,cantatas
    • Over 40 operas,Including Ottone in Villa
  4. Spring (from the four seasons)
    • Written on 1725
    • Genre-proggramic concerto for so violin no.1-4 was based on an italian sonnet with 3 movements each
    • first movement-allegro in ritornello form in 4/4 time,E+
    • Second movement-Largo; 3/4,C#-,Orchestration reduced-for solo violin,2 violins,and viola
    • Third movement: Rustic dance-Danza Pastorale,Allegor in ritornello form,E+
  5. Spring 1st movement detail
    • Distinctive timbre of baroque-period string instruments
    • Musical pictorialization of images of spring,Based on the poem (birds,babbling brooks,Gentle breezes,Thunder and lightning)
    • Virtuoisity of violin part with fast running scales and trills
    • Recurring theme(ritornello,Representing spring) that unifies the movement

    • Ritornello 1-in E+
    • Episode 1-solo violin with birdlike trills and high running scales,accompanied by violins

    • Ritornello 2
    • Episode 2-Whispering figures like water flowing played by orchestra (spring-murmuring brooks)

    • Ritornello 3
    • Episode 3 modulates- solo violin with repeated notes, Fast ascending Minor key scales, accompanined by orchestra

    • Ritornello 4-in relative minor key (C#-)
    • Episode 4-Trills and repeated notes in solo violin

    Ritornello 5 returnes to e+: Brief solo passafe interrupts

    Closing tutti
  6. Spring-2 movement detail
    • rounded binary form
    • Singing solo violin melody with sparse accompaniment (no low strings)
    • Slow movement suggests images of peaceful medow and sleeping goatherd
    • Repeated rhythmic pattern in bottom part violas represents the barking dog

    Opening of movement with solo violin,Slow and melodious,Representing the sleeping goatherd-il capraro che dorme- and viola,with insistent rhythm, representing the barking dog
  7. Spring-3 movement detail
    • Lively dance in compound 12/8 time
    • violins play over sustained lower strings likw a bagpipe
    • Alternation of full orchestra (with ritornellos) and solo violings and in first movement

    Opening of movement, With dance tune (ritornello) in upper strings: lilting,Compound meter sustained notes (like bagpipe drone) in lower strings
  8. George Fredric Handel
    • Born in halle germany in 1685
    • son of propsperous barber sugeon
    • Recived musical instruction in harpsichord,organ,violin,obe,counterpoint; became familiar with italian & German composers' music by copying score
    • father sent him to unversity to study law
    • Father opposed music career; became musician after father's death
    • 1703:work as 2nd violin in halle's opera house, Hamburg + Stufy Italian operatic style
    • age 19- wrote 1st opera almira
    • age 22- spent 3 years in rome absorbed italian operatic style
    • age 25- apponited conductor for elector of handover $ 1500/yr
    • 1710-london wrote opera Rinaldo (14 days to write) birthday ode for queen anne - te deum(hymn of thanks giving
    • Queen anne died,elector of handover becomes king george I (1712)
    • 1720 age 35:music director at Royal academy of music
    • Royal Academy of music
    • Produced 40 opers in 30 years
    • wrote 5 opera seria, then accepted opera seria finished
    • Opera Hamn and Mordecai forbidden;King state biblical characters not to me rep in theatre; Handle"there will be no acting upon this stage" beginning or first Handelian Opera
    • Collapsed from strain of doing to much work-with stroke
    • 1759: conducted 10 major oratorios-1 month messiah=last
    • success of ballad opera sang in English became popular in middle class
    • Royal Academy began to fall apart;Big Blow to ahndle finacially
    • Became blind in his later years; dictated works instead
  9. Handle's music Style
    • Creator of modern mass public
    • Oratorios; Choral drama of vitality + grandure+ epic style (soaring arias,Dramatic recitatives,fugues,double choruses; Based on old testament + suited for english middle class taste
    • Chorus;center of drama
    • Diatonic harmony,rich melody,powerful melody
    • Mass pillars of sound chords,Melody Weaves around
    • Knew how to use tone colour for atmosphere+Dramatic expression
    • International composer incorporating:
    • -Beautiful italian opera melodies
    • -Stately rhythms of French music
    • -Contrapuntal Style of german composers
    • -Majestic chord Tradition of english
  10. Handle's MUSIC X3
    • Over 40 operas
    • -Almira
    • -Rinaldo
    • -Julius Caesar
    • -Orlando

    • Oratorios
    • Esther
    • Alexander's Feast
    • Israel in egypt
    • Messiah
    • Samson
    • Belshazzar
    • Judas Maccabaeus
    • Solomon
    • Jephtha

    • Other sacred Vocal music
    • Birthday ode for queen anee
    • Acis and Galatea (masque,1718)
    • Anthems and latin church music

    • Orchestral music
    • 12 concerti Grossi op.6
    • Water music
    • Music for royal Firworks
    • Concertos for oboe,Organ and Horn

    • Chamber music
    • Solo and trio sonatas

    • Keyboard Music
    • Harpschor suits
    • Fugues and preludes
  11. J.S. Bach
    • Early years
    • Bach was born in esternach germany on March 21, 1685
    • all of his family was musicians. Both his parents died when he was 10 so he went to ordruf to live with an older brother-johann christoph who taught him to play the organ and harpschord.
    • when he was 18 he became an organist at a church in Arnstadt for 4 years. he then became an organist at a church in muhlausen for 1 year during which time he met and married his first cousin-Maria Barbara....
  12. BACH-Continued
    • Weimar period 1703-17
    • when he was 23 he became court organist and chamber musician to the duke of Wiemar. He produced some of his most famous organ works during this period and became famous as a organ virtuoso... tester of CHURCH organs... his first 6 children were born in this period.His 2 marriges produced 19 children but few survived infancy. 4 of his sons though became leadin composers-he left Weimar because the duke did not promote him....
  13. Cothen period 1717-23
    • his next appointment was KAPELLMEISTER (director of music) for the prince of cothen. the prince was especially interested in chamber music and bach wrote much instrumnetal music during this period: suites, Concertos, Sonatas for various instruments, keyboard music, and brandenburg concertos for margrave christan of brandenburg.
    • his 1st died and he meets and marries his second wife anna magdalena wilke.
  14. Leipiz period (1723-50) this is a LONG one...
    • in 1723 bach became the cantor of St.Thomas school (although church authorities preferred telemann)
    • Bach was required to teach singing and latin,inspect schools, and provide music for 4 churches

    • In 1729
    • he was appointed as director of the collenium musicium a group of university students and musicians who gave regular concerts .while at leipzig . Bach made many journeys often to test and inaugurate new organs. he visited dresden where his son-W.F bach was an organist. while there he was commitioned to write the Goldberg Variation.

    • in 1747
    • Bach accepted the invitation of king fredrick the great to visit potsdam-Where his second son C.P.E was in the kings service-and after improvising on the various keyboard instruments in the palace. he later composed for the king a famous set of fugues called the Musical Offering in which he included a trio for flute,violin,and keyboard-mindful that the king was a flutist

    Bach's last work remained unfinished-which was a set of fugues witten as a treatise on the various ways a fugues would be written called -The Art Of Fugue-

    • In 1749
    • Bach suffered from a stroke which caussed him blindness

    • In 1750
    • Bach called his son in law tto him and dedicated his last chorale prelude Before thy throne,God,I stand He managed to think out 26 measures but was not finished

    Bach passes away on july 28, 1750, and is remembered as one of the greatest composer in the history of music.
Card Set
Composers in grade 3 history