1. amenorrhea
    an absence of menstruation
  2. anteflexed
    refers to the position of the uterus when the uterine fundus bends forward toward the cervix
  3. anteverted
    refers to the position of the uterus when the uterus is tipped slightly forward so that the cervix forms a 90-degree angle or less with the vaginal canal; most common utrine position
  4. broad ligament
    a broad fold of peritoneum draped over the fallopian tubes, uterus, and the ovaries; extends from the sides of the uterus to the sidewalls of the pelvis, dividing the pelvis from side to side and creating the vesicouterine pouch anterior to the uterus and the rectouterine pouch posteriorly; it is divided into the mesometrium, mesosalpinx, and mesovarium
  5. cardinal ligament
    wide bands of fibromuscular tissue arising from the lateral aspects of the cervix and inserting along the lateral pelvic floor; a continuation of the broad ligament that provides rigid support for the carvix; also called the transverso cervical ligaments
  6. coccygeus muscles
    one of two muscles in the pelvic diaphragm; located on the posterior pelvic floor where it supports the coccyx
  7. corpus luteum
    an anatomic structure on the surface of the ovary, consisting of a spheroid of yellowish tissue that grows within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation; acts as a short-lived endocrine organ that secretes progesterone to maintain the decidual layer of the endometrium should conception occur
  8. dysmenorrhea
    pain associated with menstruation
  9. estrogen
    a steroidal hormone secreted by the theca interna and granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle that stimulates the development of the female reproductive structures and secondary sexual characteristics; promotes the growth of the endometrial tissue during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
  10. false pelvis
    portion of the pelvis found above the brim; that portion of the abdominal cavity cradled by the iliac fossae; also called the greater of major pelvis
  11. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the growth and maturation of graafian follicles in the ovary
  12. gonadotropin
    a hormonal substance that stimulates the function of the testes and the ovaries; in the female, FSH and LH are gonadotropins
  13. gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    a hormone secreted by the hypothalmus that stimulates the realease of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by the anterior pituitary gland
  14. iliacus muscle
    paired triangular, flat muscles that cover the inner curved surface of the iliac fossae and join the psoas major muscles to form the lateral walls of the pelvis
  15. iliopectineal line
    bony ridge on the inner surface of the ilium and pubic bones that divided the true and false pelves; also called the pelvic brim or linea terminalis
  16. levator ani
    one of two muscles of the pelvic diaphragm that stretch across the floor of the pelvic cavity like a hammock, supporting the pelvic organs and surrounding the urethra, vagina, and rectum; a broad thin muscle that consists of the pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and puborectalis
  17. luteinizing hormone (LH)
    a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation and then induces luteinization of the ruptured follicle to form the corpus luteum
  18. menarche
    refers to the onset of menstruation and the comemcement of cyclic menstrual function; usually occurs between 11 and 13 years of age
  19. menopause
    refers to the cessation of menstruation
  20. menorrhagia
    abnormally heavy or long periods
  21. menses
    the periodic flow of blood and cellular debris that occurs during menstruation
  22. mesometrium
    the portion of the broad ligament below the mesovarium, composed of the layers of the peritoneum that separate to enclose the uterus
  23. mesosalpinx
    the upper portion of the broad ligament that encloses the fallopian tubes
  24. mesovarium
    the posterior portion of the broad ligament that is drawn out to enclose and hold the ovary in place
  25. obturator internus muscle
    a triangular sheet of muscle that arises from the anterolateral pelvic wall and surrounds the obturator forman; passes through the lesser sciatic foramen and inserts into the medial aspect of the greater trochanter of the femer; serves to rotate and abduct the thigh
  26. oligomenorrhea
    abnormally light menstrual periods
  27. oocyte
    an incompletely developed or immature ovum
  28. ovarian ligament
    a paired ligament that extends from the inferior/medial pole of the ovary to the uterine cornua; also called the utero-ovarian ligament
  29. ovum
    the frmale egg; a secondary oocyte released from the ovary at ovulation
  30. perimetrium
    a serous membrane envloping the uterus; also called the serosa
  31. piriformis muscle
    a flat, pyramidal muscle arising from the anterior sacrum, passing through the greater sciatic notch to insert into the superior aspect of the greater trochanter of the femur; serves to rotate and abduct the thigh
  32. polymenorrhea
    an abnormally frequent recurrence of the menstryal cycle, of less than 21 days
  33. premenarche
    time period in young girls before the onset of menstruation
  34. progesterone
    a steroidal hormone produced by the corpus luteum that helps prepare and maitain the endometrium for the arrival and implantation of an embryo
  35. psoas major muscle
    paired muscles that originate at the transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae and extend inferiorly through the false pelvis on the pelvic sidewall, wheere it unites with the iliacus muscle to form the iliopsoas muscle before inserting into the lesser trochanter of the femur; servies to flex the thigh towards the pelvis
  36. rectouterine recess (pouch)
    area in the pelvic cavity between the rectum and the uterus that is likely to accumulate free fluid; also known as the posterior cul-de-sac and the pouch of Douglas
  37. retroflexed
    refers to the position of the uterus when the uterine fundus bends posteriorly upon the cervix
  38. retroverted
    refers to the position of the uterus when the entire uterus is tipped posteriorly so that the angle formed between the cervix and vaginal canal is greater than 90 degrees
  39. round ligaments
    paired ligaments that originate at the uterine cornua, anterior to the fallopian tubes, and course anterolaterally within the broad ligament to insert into the fascia of the labia majora; hold the uterus forward in its anteverted position
  40. space of Retzius
    located between the anterior bladder wall and the pubic symphysis; contains extraperitoneal fat
  41. striations
    parallel lingitudinal lines commonly seen in muscle tissue when imaged sonographically; appear as hyperechoic parallel lines running in the long axis of the hypoechoic muscle tissue
  42. suspensory (infundibulopelvic) ligament
    paired ligaments that extend from the infundibulum of the fallopian tube and the lateral aspect of the ovary to the lateral pelvic wall; also called the infundibulopelvic ligament
  43. true pelvis
    pelvic cavity found below the brim of the pelvis; also called the minor or lesser pelvis
  44. uterosacral ligaments
    posterior portion of the cardinal ligament that extends from the cervix to the sacrum
  45. vesicouterine recess (pouch)
    area in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and the uterus; also known as the anterior cul-de-sac
  46. adnexa
    structure or tissue next to or near another related structure; ovaries and the fallopian tues are adnexa of the uterus
  47. anteverted
    tipped forward
  48. arcuate vessels
    small vessels found along the periphery of the uterus
  49. cornu, cornua
    any projection like a horn; refers to the fundus of the uterus where the fallopian tube arises
  50. coronal
    refers to a horizontal plane through the lingitudinal axis of the body to image structures from anterior to posterior
  51. endometrium
    inner lining of the uterine cavity, which appears echogenic to hypoechoic on ultrasound, depending on the menstrual cycle
  52. internal os
    inner surface of the cervical os
  53. introitus
    an opening or entrance into a canal or cavity, as the vagina
  54. menarche
    state after reaching puberty in which menses occur normally every 21 to 28 days
  55. menopause
    when menses have ceased permanently
  56. menstruation
    days 1 to 4 of the menstrual cycle; endometrial canal appears as a hypoechoic central line representing blood and tissue
  57. myometrium
    middle layer of the uterine cavity that appears very homogeneous with sonography
  58. parity
  59. Pourcelot resistive index
    doppler measurement that takes the highest systolic peak minus the highest diastolic peak divided by the highest systolic peak
  60. premenarche
    time before the onset of menses
  61. proliferative phase (early)
    days 5 to 9 of the mestrual cycle; endometrium appears as a singlr thin stripe with a hypoechoic halo encompassing it; creates the "three-line sign"
  62. proliferative phase (late)
    days 10 to 14 of the menstrual cycle; ovulation occurs; the endometrium increases in thickness and echogenicity
  63. pulsatility index (PI)
    doppler measurement that uses peak systole minus peak diastole divided by the mean
  64. retroverted
    bending backwards
  65. sigittal
    refers to a vertical plane through the lingitudinal axis of the body that divides it into two portions
  66. S/D ratio
    difference between peak systole and end diastole
  67. secretory (luteal) phase
    days 15 to 28 of the mestrual cycle; the endometrium is at its greatest thickness and chogenicity with posterior enhancement
  68. sonohysterography (saline infused sonography or SIS)
    technique that uses a catheter inserted into the endometrial cavity, with the inssertion of saline solution or contrast medium, to fill the endometrial cavity for the purpose of demonstrating abnormalities within the cavity or uterine tubes
  69. translabial
    across or through the labia
  70. transperineal
    across or through the perineum
  71. adenomyosis
    benign invasive growth of the endometrium that may cause heavy, painful menstrual bleeding
  72. cervical polyp
    hyperplastic protrusion of the epithelium of the cervix; may be broad based or pendunculated
  73. cervical stenosis
    acquires condition with obstruction of the cervical canal
  74. curettage
    scraping with a curet to remove the contents of the uterus, as is done following inevitable or incomplete abortion; to produce abortion; to abtain specimens for use in diagnosis; and to remove growths, such as polyps
  75. dysmenorrhea
    pain in association with menstruation
  76. ectocervix
    a portion of the canal of the uterine cervix that is lined with squamous epithelium
  77. ectopic pregnancy
    pregnancy occurring outside the uterine cavity
  78. endometrial carcinoma
    malignancy characterized by abnormal thickening of the endometrial cavity; usually includes irregular bleeding in perimenopausal and in postmenopausal women
  79. endometrial hyperplasia
    condition that results from estrogen stimulation to the endometrium without the influence of progestin; frequent cause of bleeding (especially in postmenopausal women)
  80. endometrial polyp
    pedunculated or sessile well-defined mass attached to the endometrial cavity
  81. endometritis
    infection within the endometrium of the uterus
  82. Gartner's duct cyst
    small cyst within the vagina
  83. hematometra
    obstruction of the uterus and/or the vagina characterized by an accumulation of blood
  84. hydrometra
    obstruction of the uterus and/or the vagina characterized by an accumulation of fluid
  85. intramural leiomyoma
    most common benign gynecologic tumor in women during their reproductive years
  86. metrorrhea
    irregular, acyclic bleeding
  87. nabothian cyst
    benign tiny cyst within the cervix
  88. pyometra
    obstruction of the uterus and/or the vagina characterized by an accumulation of pus
  89. sonohysterography
    injection of sterile saline into the endometrial cavity under ultrasound guidance; also known as saline infused sonography (SIS)
  90. squamous cell carcinoma
    most common type of cervical cancer
  91. submucosal leiomyoma
    type of leiomyoma found to deform the endometrial cavity and cause heavy or irregular menses
  92. subserosal leiomyoma
    type of leiomyoma that may become pedunculated and appear as an extrauterine mass
  93. tamoxifen
    an antiestrogen druf used in treation carcinoma of the breast
Card Set
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