Poli Sci 180

  1. News
    The media's version of reality, usually with an emphasis on timely, dramatic, and compelling events and developments
  2. Press [News Media]
    Print, broadcast, cable,and internet organizations that are in the news-reporting business.

    (ABC, NPR, CNN, FOX, Time, Newsweek ect)
  3. What is the key intermediary between Americans and their leaders?
    The Media

    (news, cable, newspaper)
  4. Basic goal of Media
    To inform public about politics and government

    Due to medias goal of profit and attracting audience, their news coverage become secondary in importance.
  5. Partisan Press and Objective Press
    Partisan Press- When The American Press was initially tied to the nations political party system

    Objective Press - An independent position/ journalist orientation
  6. Four function of the news media
    Signaling - Bringing relevant events and problems into public view

    • Common-carrier- Serves as a channel through which leaders and citizens can communicate
    • Watchdog- The press scrutinizes official behavior for evidence of deceitful, careless, corrupt acts

    Partisan- Promoting particular interest and values
  7. "New" news
    Cable, internet ect

    *Mainly contribute to partisan
  8. Traditional Media
    Print and broadcast 

    *contribute mainly to Signaling, common-carrier, and watchdog
  9. Democracy depends on what kind of information?
    Free flow information
  10. Who started the Gazette of the United States and why?
    Alexander Hamilton persuaded JOHN FENNO to promote policies of George Washington

    *Laced with partisanship
  11. Partisan Press
    Publishers who openly backed one party or another
  12. Yellow Journalism
    • Used to sell newspapers
    • Lured readers anyway possible by
  13. Objective Journalism
    A model of news reporting that is based on the communication of "facts" rather than opinions and that is "fair" in that is presents all sides of partisan debate

    *the one reason the national news everywhere is pretty much the same
  14. in 1920s, what started to take place of Newspapers
    Radio stations
  15. Communications Act
    • passed in 1934 by congress
    • Regulated broadcasting and created the Federal Communications Commissions (FCC)
  16. What did the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) do?
    • Required broadcaster to be licensed due to limited frequencies
    • Prohibited from selling or giving airtime to a political coverage with out offering to sell or give equal amount of airtime to other candidates
  17. Following radios, the 1950 brought what?
    • Televisions!
    • About 90 percent of Americans owned a TV
  18. Fairness Doctrine
    • Imposed by the FCC when televisions became a big source of political advertising
    • Required broadcasters to "afford reasonable opportunity for the discussion of conflicting views of importance"
    • prohibited using their news coverage to promote one party or issue position at the expense of another

    *In exception to cable television*
  19. Gatekeepers
    A term used to describe how the news media determines which events will be covered and which ones will not

    *A way on influencing what citizens think
  20. Hard Events
    Developments that have taken a clear and definable shape within the past 24 hours
  21. Signaling Function
    Alerting the public to important developments as soon as the happen

    *performed largely by the traditional media (the wire services, the daily newspapers, and television)
  22. Agenda Setting
    A term used describe the power of the media through news coverage to focus on the publics attention and concern on particular events, problems, issues, personalities, and so on

    *influencing what is on peoples mind but not so much on what to think
  23. Common-Carrier Function
    The medias function as an open channel through  which political leaders can communicate with the public.

    *Rose Garden Strategy*
  24. Framing
    The process of selecting certain aspects of a situation and using them as the framework for shaping the message.

    To provide a particular interpretation of the situation
  25. Watchdog Function
    The accepted responsibility of the media to protect the public from incompetent or corrupt officials by standing ready to expose any official who violates accepted legal, ethical or performance standards
  26. The "fourth branch of government"
    • The American news media
    • As part of the political system's checks on abuses by those in power
  27. Partisan Function
    Efforts by media actors to influence public response to a particular party, leader, issue or viewpoint
  28. What caused news media to turn primarily negative?
    Vietnam and Watergate
  29. "The long tail" of news
    Few very heavily visited sites and thousands lightly visited sights where their information was tapped from more popular news organizations
  30. High-choice media system
    A media system in which audiences have such a wide range of choices that they can largely control the type of information to which they are exposed
  31. The partisan divide
    Americans increasingly rely on sources that communication information that supports what they already believe.

    *Conservatives tune into right-winged talks shows and vice versa
  32. Incumbent
    The current holder of a particular public office 

    Roughly 90% probability of winning reelection
  33. Constituency
    The people residing within the geographical area represented by an elected official 

    (people residing in the incumbents state or district)
  34. Pork (pork-barrel spending)
    What some outsiders of a constituency call spending, whose tangible benefits are targeted at a particular legislator's constituency. (new hospital, highway ext)
  35. Service strategy
    Use of personal staff by members of congress to perform services for constituents in order to gain their support in future elections
  36. Congressional staffers usually spend most of their time on what?
    Constituency services and public relations
  37. "Frank"
    Congresses ability to fly back  to their home state and free mailing to constituency households
  38. Why do incumbents have an easier time fundraising than new runners?
    • Already have obtained a mailing list of donors
    • Edge with PACS (political action committees)
    • PACs, are they arm of fundraising for interest groups and are reluctant to oppose incumbents
  39. Open-seat election
    • An election in which there is no incumbent in the race 
    • Often brings out a strong candidate from each party and involves heavy spending
  40. Reapportionment
    The reallocation of house seats among states after each census as a result of population changes
  41. What is not effected by population size?
    • The Senate
    • Because each state has 2 senators regardless of population
  42. Redistricting
    • The process of altering election districts to make them as nearly equal in population as possible.
    • Occurs every 10 years after each population census
  43. Gerrymandering
    The process by which the party in power redraws election district boundaries in a way that enhances the reelection prospects of its candidates
  44. Risks on incumbency
    • Disruptive issues 
    • Personal misconduct 
    • Turnout swings 
    • Strong challengers 
    • and campaign money
  45. Midterm elections
    • The congressional election that occurs midway through the presidents term in office
    • Where presidents party usually looses seats
  46. Bicameral Legislature
    • A legislature that has two chambers 
    • The house and the senate
  47. Party Leaders
    Members of the House and Senate who are chosen by the democratic or republican caucus in each chamber to represent the party's interest in that chamber and who give some central direction to the chambers work
  48. Party Caucus
    • Closed session meeting to plan strategy, develop issues, and resolve policy differences
    • Select party leadership
  49. What is the strongest force within congress?
    Political Parties
  50. Party Unity
    Members of a party band together on legislation and stand against the opposite party
  51. Roll-call votes
    Votes in which members vote is officially recorded by a "yay" or "nay" vote
  52. Speaker of The House
    • Most powerful national official, besides the president
    • Active in developing the party's positions on issues and persuading party members to support the issue
    • Have the right to speak first during house debates and power to recognize members
    • Assign bills to committees 
    • Places time limits on reporting of bills
    • Assign members to conference committees
  53. Majority Leader
    • Acts as the party's floor leader, organizing the debate on bills and lining up legislative support.
    • Assisted my majority whip
  54. The Whip
    Has the job of informing party members when critical votes are scheduled
  55. Speaker vs Senate majority leader
    • Senate Majority leader is not the chamber's presiding officer. 
    • Senate presiding officer is vice president
    • -Because vice president only votes during ties
  56. President pro tempore
    • Temporary president
    • Takes the place of the vice president when not attending Senate sessions
    • Senates presiding officer has no real power
  57. Senate debates 
    • Tradition of unlimited debate
    • Any senator who wishes to speak on a bill can do so
  58. Senate size/office term and House size/office term
    • Senate: Only 100 members but serve 6 year terms; Senators have more power
    • House: 435 members and only serve 2 year terms
  59. Standing committees 
    • Permanent congressional committees with responsibility for a particular area of public policy.
    • (Senate foreigns committees, Agriculture, Commerce)
  60. Subcommittees 
    • Committee within the "standing committee" 
    • Each has a defined jurisdiction 

    ex. House of Foreign Affairs (7 subcommittees): Oversight and Investigation, Africa, Global Health, Human Rights, Asia ect
  61. Purpose of the committee system
    • Congress would not be able to handle the workload 
    • About 10 thousand bills are introduced during each 2 year session
  62. Select Committees 
    • Part of the committee system
    • DO NOT produce legislation 

    Ex Senate Select Committe on Intelligence, which receives classified information from the intelligence agencies 
  63. Joint Committees 
    • Congress committee
    • Composed of both member of both houses, which perform advisory function
  64. Conference Committees
    Joint committees formed temporarily to work out the differences in House and Senate versions of a particular bill
  65. 1946 Legislative Reorganization Act
    • By Harry Trumen
    • Requires each bill introduced in Congress be referred to the proper committee 
    • Source of each committees power
  66. Jurisdiction
    • The policy area in which a particular congressional committee is authorized to act
    • Jurisdiction is not always clear cut because all committees seek legislative influence
  67. Turf war
    When a bill passes between committee boundaries can provoke "turf war" over which committee will handle it
  68. Committee Membership
    • Fixed number of seats
    • Members of The House typically serve on 2 committees 
    • Members in Congress usually serve on 4 but can sit in on two others
  69. Where do bills come from?
    • Executive agencies 
    • Interest groups
    • Members of Congress also draft bills, and they alone can formally submit a bill for consideration
  70. Steps a bill goes through
    • Introduction
    • Committee action
    • Floor Action
    • Conference Action
    • Executive Action
  71. Introduction and committee stage of a Bill
    • Introduced to house or senate 
    • Sent to relevant subcommittee ->Committee- >If approved by committees (w mark ups) 
    • , sent to respective chamber
  72. Committee to Floor Debate of a Bill
    • In the House 
    • Bills are placed onto certain calendars for review
    • Tax -> Union Calendar
    • Non-monetary- > House Calendar 
    • Private Bills - > Private Calendars (or directly to floor) 
    • Non Controversial- > Consent Calendar
  73. Floor debate/action of a Bill
    The Speaker and Majority leader then determine when bills are called off the calendar and into play
  74. Speaker bringing a minor bill directly to the floor
    • Requires 2/3 votes
    • Debate is limited to 40 mins, and no amendments are allowed
  75. The Rules Committee during a bill
    Decides the amount of time the House will Spend on debating a bill and any amendments
  76. Closed Rule/Open Rule/Modified Rule
    • Closed Rule: An order from the House of Rules committee that prohibits amendments to a bill under consideration on the House floor
    • Open Rule: An order from the HRC whereby amendments to a bill are permitted on the floor)
    • Modified Rule: order from HRC that allowed limited number of amendments to a bill during consideration
  77. Senates two calendars
    • Executive Calendar- Pres nominations and treaties 
    • Calendar of General Orders- All other legislation
  78. Colture (Rule 22)
    A parliamentary maneuver that, if a 3/5 majority votes for it, limits Senate debate to thirty hours and has the effect of defeating a filibuster
  79. Filibuster
    • A procedural tactic in the US.
    • Senate whereby a minority of legislators prevent a bill from coming to a vote by holding the floor and talking until the majority gives in and the bill is withdrawn from consideration
  80. Riders
    • An amendment to a bill that deals with an issue unrelated to the content of the bill
    • Riders are permitted in the Senate but not in the House
  81. House Senate Conference Committee
    A joint committee designed to reconcile difference between the House and Senate version of a Bill
  82. Conference Report
    A compromise bill the HS conference committee sends back to the House and Senate for final approval
  83. Veto
    The Presidents rejection of a bill, thereby keeping it from becoming law unless Congress overrides veto
  84. Whig Theory
    A theory that the presidency is a limited or constrained office whose occupant is empowered to act only within the confines of expressly granted constitutional authority
  85. Stewardship theory
    A theory that we need a strong presidency that is limited, not by what the constitution allows, but by what it prohibits
  86. Open party caucuses
    • Meetings at which a party's candidates for nomination are voted on a
    • open to all the party's rank-and-file voters who want to attend
  87. Invisible Primary
    Critical period before the first presidential primaries and caucuses when the candidates compete for the public support. media attention, and financial contributions that can spell the difference between winning and losing once the voting begins
  88. Momentum
    • A strong showing by a candidate in early presidential nominating contests
    • Leads to a buildup of public support for the candidate
  89. Unit Rule
    The rule that grants all of a states electoral votes to the candidate who receives the most popular votes in the state
  90. White House Office (WHO)
    • A subunit of the executive Office of the President
    • The core of the presidential staff system
    • Includes the Presidents closest and most trusted personal advisors
  91. Cabinet
    • A group consisting of heads of the executive departments (cabinets) 
    • Appointed by the president 
    • Subject to confirmation by Senate
Card Set
Poli Sci 180
Final - Chp 10, 11, 12