Chapter 14 Test

  1. Discuss the contributions of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton to the Scientific Revolution. Who made the most important contribution and why?
    Many natural philosophers, notably Nicolaus Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton, contributed to the Scientific Revolution. Copernicus taught that the planets revolved around the sun and that the further the planets were from the sun, the longer they took to revolve around the sun. Brahe compiled large amounts of astronomical data that proved important for Kepler, who proposed a model of the solar system with planetary motion and elliptical orbits. Galileo further articulated the Copernican model and portrayed a universe subject to mathematical laws. Newton’s major contribution to the Scientific Revolution was the concept of gravity and how it affected every physical object in the universe. The most important contribution to the Scientific Revolution was made by Galileo because he pushed the idea of mechanism, a common belief of natural philosophers of the Scientific Revolution. Without Galileo pushing mechanism, then perhaps people like Newton would not have thought of the universe subject to mathematical laws, and would not have tried to mathematically prove gravity and other fundamental astrological concepts, which are essential to the understanding we have today.
  2. Compare and contrast Blaise Pascal and Francis Bacon's approaches to the relationship between religion and science. On what would they agree? On what would they disagree?
    Francis Bacon, and many other natural philosophers of the Scientific Revolution, viewed science and religion as two intertwined bodies, that through science humans can come to understand religion; however, Blaise Pascal believed that religion was not the domain of science. thus science could never begin to explain matters of religion. Despite their different viewpoints, Bacon and Pascal would both agree that science and religion, although they may or may not be related, individual should be strengthened for the advancement of humanity. Pascal, like Bacon, believed that a belief in God improved life psychologically and morally, regardless of whether or not God exists.
  3. How were the witch hunts a sign of their times?  What role did religion play in the witch hunts?  What do you think caused the witch hunts to come to a close?
    During the Scientific Revolution, religion people, including many among the learned and many who were sympathetic to the emerging scientific ideas, continued to believe in the power of magic and the occult. The witch hunts were symbolic of their times because disruptions caused by religious division and warfare created mass panic, which lead many people to accuse others of witchcraft. Popular belief in magical powers was the essential foundation of the witch-hunts. The clash created by the expanding Church and other folkloric beliefs created tension and panic which lead to the witch hunts. I think the emergence of more scientific and mathematical thinking lead to the end of the witch-hunts because people began to realize that witchcraft was incongruent with math and logic.
  4. Explain how Thomas Hobbes was an apologist for absolute monarchs.
    Thomas Hobbes, a political philosopher of the seventeenth century, portrayed human beings and society in a materialistic and mechanical way, saying that humanity was ultimately self-centered and needed to be protected from itself. Thomas Hobbes’ beliefs led him to publish works of political philosophy before the English Civil War. The aim of his work was to provide a rigorous philosophical justification for a strong central political authority. According to Hobbes, humans could escape their terrible state of nature only by entering into a political contract in which they agreed to live in a commonwealth tightly ruled by a recognized sovereign; thus Hobbes’ views promoted the rule of an absolute monarchy.
  5. Discuss how John Locke’s view of humanity is reflective in our own society.
    John Locke, the most influential philosophical and political thinker of the seventeenth century, believed that human were creature of reason and good will. Locke’s works became a major source of criticism of absolutism and provided a foundation for later liberal political philosophy in both Europe and America. Locke’s belief that the social contract between government and the people was obliged to grant people their freedom and the right to remove the government if it did not grant freedom. His beliefs established a powerful foundation for the future extension of toleration, religious liberty, and the separation of church and state; thus, Locke had a great influence on the foundation of America, our society.
  6. _____ was not rapid as it took the brilliant minds of
    dislocated scientists in laboratories in Poland, Italy, Denmark, Bohemia,
    France and Great Britain, as well as many local artisans they hired to help
    created instruments for study to produce this new science.
    The Scientific Revolution
  7. Who § 
    Polish priest and scientist

    educated at the University of Krakow

    wrote On
    the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543

    Commissioned to find astronomical justification
    so that the papacy could change the calendar so that it could correctly
    calculate the date of Easter, Copernicus’s work provided an intellectual
    springboard from which scientist could posit questions about Earth’s position
    in the universe.
    Nicolas Copernicus
  8. ____ 
    was considered the authority on astronomy
    throughout the Middle Ages and it suggested a geocentric model of the universe.
  9. ·        
    ____ believed that the planets moved
    uniformly about a small circle called an epicycle and the center of the
    epicycle moved about a larger circle—called a deferent—with the earth at or
    near its center.
  10. _______’s Model adopted many elements in the
    Ptolemaic model, but transferred them to a heliocentric
    model, which assumed the earth moved about the sun in a circle.

    He proposed that the farther planets are away
    from the sun, the longer they took to revolve around it which enabled
    astronomers to rank the planets in terms of distance from the sun.
  11. ______ § 
     did not believe Copernicus’s view and spent
    much of life advocating for a geocentric system.

    He posited that Mercury and Venus revolved
    around the sun but that the moon, the sun, and other planters revolved around
    the earth.

    He collected very detailed data of his observations.
    Tycho Brahe
  12. § 
    He studied under Brahe and was given his data
    when he died.

    _____, unlike Brahe was a convinced Copernican
    who found mathematical proof of a sun-centered universe.

    He found that in order for heliocentrism to be
    true, planets must have an elliptical, rather than circular orbiti.

    _____ published his findings in a book called The New Astronomy (1609) in which he
    used Copernicus’s sun-centered model and Brahe’s empirical data to solve the
    problem of planetary motion.
  13. Who o  
    In 1609, he used a recently invented telescope
    to observe the skies and he saw stars where none had been before, mountains on
    the moon, spots moving across the sun, and moons orbiting Jupiter.

    In The
    Starry Messenger (1610) and Letters
    on Sunspots (1613), he used his rhetorical skills to argue that his new
    evidence—particularly in the phases of Venus—required a Copernican
    interpretation of the heavens.

    _____ taught at the University of Padua before
    being hired by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was a Medici.

    He popularized the Copernican system and
    articulated the concept of a universe subject to mathematical laws.

    Copernicus had thought that the heavens
    conformed to mathematical regularity; _____ saw this regularity throughout
    all physical nature.

    For many people, the power of the mathematical
    arguments that appeared irrefutable proved more persuasive than the new
    information from physical observation that produced so much controversy; few intellectual
    shifts have wrought such momentous changes for Western civilization.
  14. o  
    Astronomers like Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
    were still confused about how the planets and other heavenly bodies moved in an
    orderly fashion.

    In his book, The
    Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687), _____ identified the
    cause of planetary motion, and in so doing, established a foundation for the
    study of modern phsyics.

    One of Newton’s findings was that the principle
    of inertia applied to both objects at rest and in motion.

    He also reasoned that the planets and all other
    physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction, or gravity.

    The attraction of gravity explained why the
    planets moved in an orderly rather than chaotic fashion.

    _____, along with Francis Bacon, believed in
    empiricism—that one must observe phenomena before attempting to explain it
    through mathematics.

    _____ opposed the idea of rationalism supported
    by the French philosopher Rene Descartes which he believed was insufficient
    guards against error.
  15. o  
    ______ began to view the universe as a machine
    and many of them used the imagery of a clock to explain the workings of the
  16. o  
    The new world view of the universe as a machine
    took away the mystery of the world and the previous assumption of the presence
    of divine purpose in nature as Europeans no longer looked for symbolic or
    sacramental meaning in nature.

    Knowledge of the universe became the path toward
    physical improvement of human beings through their ability to command and
    manipulate the processes of nature.
  17. § 
    was an Englishman who worked as a lawyer, a high
    royal official, wrote history, moral essays, and philosophical discourses.

    Although ____ is known as the father of
    empiricism and experimentation in science—a designation that he did not earn—his
    real accomplishment was setting an intellectual tone and helping create a
    climate conducive to scientific work.

    ____ Works

    In The
    Advancement of Learning (1605), the
    Novum Organum (1620), and The New Atlantis (1627), he attacked the
    scholastic belief that most truth had been discovered and only required

    ____ believed that many scholastics paid too
    much attention to tradition and the classics and encouraged scientist to blaze
    new trails in their understanding of nature.

    _____ believed that human knowledge should
    produce deeds rather than words and encouraged the application of knowledge to
    the improvement of the human condition.

    Bee as a metaphor for the philosopher
  18. o  
    ____’s Significance

    He represented and advocated the sentiment of rejecting
    the past not from simple contempt or arrogance, but rather from a firm
    understanding that the world was much more complicate that medieval scholars
    had thought.

    ____ influenced monarchs and governments as he
    encouraged leaders to use new knowledge to increase the efficiency and
    productivity of governments.
  19. o  
    Contributions to Mathematics and Philosophy

    ______ (1596-1650) was a top-notch
    mathematician who invented analytic geometry.

    He also developed a scientific method that
    relied more on deduction—reasoning from general principle to arrive at
    facts—than empirical observation and induction.
    Rene Descartes
  20. o  
    Major Works

    on Method (1637)

    ____ stated that he would doubt everything
    except those propositions about which he could have clear and distinct ideas.

    His approach rejected all forms of intellectual
    authority except the conviction of his own reason.

    He deduced the existence of God and since God
    was not a deciever, the ideas of God-given reason could not be false.

    He concluded that human reason could fully
    comprehend the world.


     In this book, ____ encouraged an
    emphasis on deduction, rational speculation, and internal reflection of the

    ______’ deductive methodology, however, lost
    favor to scientific induction, whereby scientists draw generalizations derived
    from and test hypotheses against empirical observations.
    Rene Descartes
  21. o  
    Women were excluded from the growing advances in

    Some women had power at princely courts to whom scientists—like
    Galileo—went for patronage, but they usually did not determine the patronage
    decisions or benefit from them.

    Queen ______ of Sweden, who brought Rene Descartes
    to set up a new science academy, was an exception who had a major impact on the
    development of science.
  22. o  
    However, a few noblewomen and women from the
    artisan class did manage to engage in scientific activity.

    ________ (1623-1673), wife of the duke
    of Newcastle, wrote Observations Upon
    Experimental Philosophy (1666) and Grounds
    of Natural Philosophy (1668), and was the only woman in the seventeenth
    century to be allowed to visit the Royal Society of London.


    German woman from the artisan class who took
    over her husband’s shop—which produced equipment for astronomy—when he died.

    She published a book on astronomy.

    ______ _______ constituted a
    husband-wife astronomica team as did Maria and Gottfried Winkelmann.

    Winkelmann had worked jointly with her husband
    at the Berlin Academy of Sciences but her application to continue their work
    after his death was rejected.
    • Margaret Cavendish
    • Maria Cunitz
    • Elisabetha and Johannes Hevelius
  23. o  
    Some scientists began writing solely for female

    Margaret Cavendish produced a Description of a New World, Called the
    Blazing World (1666) to introduce women to the new science.

    Bernard Fontenelle wrote Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds and Francesco Algarotti
    published Newtonianism for the Ladies
    in 1737.

    Emilie Chatelet (1706-1749) translated Newton’s Principia into French.
  24. o  
    New science threatened religion for three

    Certain theories and discoveries did not agree
    with biblical statements about the heavens.

    Who would decide conflicts between religion and
    science—church authorities or the natural philosophers?

    For many religious thinkers, the new science
    seemed to replace a universe with spiritual meaning and significance with a
    purely materialistic one.
  25. ·        
    Pascal: Reason and Faith

    Biographical information

    He was a French mathematician who lived from

    He allied himself with the Jansenists who were
    the opponents of the Jesuits.

    Blaise’s works

    He aspired to write a work that would refute
    dogmatism and skepticism in order to reconcile faith and the new science.

    Pensees (Thoughts), published after his death,
    was a collection of reflections on humankind and religion.

    He believed that in religious matters, only the
    reasons of the heart and a “leap of faith” could prevail.

    Two Christian truths

    A loving God exists

    Human beings, because they are corrupted by
    nature, are utterly unworthy of God.

    He believed that atheists and deists of his day
    placed too much emphasis on reason which was too weak to resolve the problems
    of human nature.

    Pascal engaged in a famous bet with skeptics to
    whom he insisted that it is a better bet to believe God exists and to stake
    everything on his promised mercy than not to do so.
  26. o  
    Francis Bacon

    There were two books of divine revelation: the
    Bible and nature

    In studying nature, the natural philosopher could
    gain a deeper understanding of things divine, just as could a theologian
    studying the Bible.

    Since the two works have the same author—Bacon
    contended—science and religion must eventually be reconciled.

    Following Newton’s works, natural philosophers came
    to see themselves as studying nature to come to a better understanding of the

    thought associated with the deducing of religious conclusions from nature.

    By the late seventeenth century, natural
    philosophy and its practical achievements had become associated in the public
    mind with consumption and the market economy.

    John Ray’s The
    Wisdom of God Manifested in His Works of Creation (1690)

    Argued that God wanted human beings to first
    understand the work, then turn this knowledge into productive practical use
    through rationality.

    People came to believe that God wanted human
    beings to improve the world.

    This outlook provided a religious justification
    for the processes of economic improvement that would characterize the eighteenth
  27. ·        
    of the Clergy

    When the church expanded into areas where its
    power and influence were small, it encountered semi-pagan cultures rich in
    folkloric beliefs, the Christian religious authorities clashed with those of
    the traditional villages.

    The Christian clergy practiced high magic—they
    could transform water into wine and bread into the body of Christ; they also
    claimed the power to cast out demons.

    However, the church claimed to have a monopoly
    on magic and anyone else who claimed to possess it would be severely punished.
  28. o  
    Baroque—style associated with seventeenth-century
    paintings, sculptures and architecture.

    Characteristics of Baroque style

    Artists depict subjects in a more naturalistic
    way rather than an idealized manner.

    Faith and interest in nature paralleled the new
    science and understanding of the natural world.

    Deeper understanding of human anatomy
Card Set
Chapter 14 Test
Chapter 14 Test