1. Black Tuesday
    October 29, 1929 is when it occurred. The NY stock exchange closed down, 12.8%, the beginning of the Great Depression. Overnight, stock values fell from a peak of 87 billion to 55 billion. Once depression began the majority of the population lacked sufficient buying power to revive the economy.
  2. Bonus Army
    A group of former soldiers of about 20,000 unemployed WWII Veterans, hitch-hiked to Washington in the summer of 1932 to demand immediate payment of their bonues, a pension payment that was due to be paid in 1945. When they refused to leave from the U.S. Capitol building Hoover called out regular army troops. two veterans were killed, President hoover was embarressed.
  3. Fireside Chats
    Was a series of evening radio speeches given by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He first used in in 1929 during his first term as Governor of NY to speak directly to citizens of NY. This helped his relationship with the people.
  4. Court Packing
    The Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, frequently called the court-packing plan, was a legislative initiative to add more justices to the supreme court proposed by President Frankin Roosevelt shortly after his victory in the election.
  5. Lend Lease Act
    Was passed by congress on March 11, 1941. it provided that the President could ship weapons, food, or equipment to any country whose struggle against the Axis assisted U.S. defense. The implementation of lend-lease marked the unofficial entrance of the United States into the European war.
  6. Pearl Harbor
    The surprise attack by Japan on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought the United States into WWII. WWII brought a complete denial of basic civil liberties. By December 1942 Japanese Americans on the west coast was put into concentration camps.
  7. Zoot Suits
    Were worn in the 1940s and had outrageously padded shoulders and trousers that were fiercely tapered at the ankles. Yound Lantino men wore these suits, it was viewed as gang membership and a delinquint youth culture.
  8. Rosie the Riveter
    In the second world war, Rosie the Riveter became a symbol for women workers in the American Defense industries. It represented the American Women who worked in factories like manufacturing plants that produced munitions and war supplies.
  9. Baby Boomers
    Is someone born between 1946-1964. The term boomer came because the birth rate skyrocketed after WWII. Everyone was having children at the same time, there was a drop in the marriage age; men 22 and women 20.
  10. Containment
    Was a U.S. policy using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to temper the spread of communism. It was put in The Truman Doctrine of 1947, he didn't want to wipe out communism he just didn't want it to spread. Truman wanted congress to help.
  11. Marshall Plan
    It offered a positive vision for containment. The plan was a proposition by Secretary of State George Marshall to provide economic help to restore postwar Europe. It allowed Europe to rebuild after WWII and also allowed the U.S. and its western allies to monitor and stop growth of communism.
  12. SNCC
    The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was one of the principal organizations of the Civil Rights movement. It was active from 1960-1966. Some of the issues they tried to tend to were segregation, feminism, war, and liberalism.
  13. Malcolm X
    He changed his last name from Little to X beause he was intrigued with the teachings of Islam. He considered Little to be a slave name. He bacame a muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist. He was very radical, which was the complete opposite of how Martin Luther King Jr handeled things. Malcolm X was assitnated on Feb. 21, 1965 while giving a speech in Harlem. It was believed he was killed by three black muslims, which were arrested for his murder.
  14. Women's Liberation Movement
    Started in the late 1960s to combat sexual discrimination. They had group sessions in which women shared thier expressions. These sessions were held in NY, SF, and other ig cities accross the country. All women came together that had the same issues such as, being passed for promotion, needing husbands signature on credit cards etc.
  15. NOW
    National Organization for Women in 1966. It was intended to be a civil rights organization for women. This organization was a little radical that promoted the sharing of equal rights, responsibilties and opportunties with men.
  16. Stonewall Riots
    The riots occurred in the summer of 1969 when the patrons of gay bars fought back against police harrassment. It happened in front of the stonewall inn in Manhatten, the Greenwich Village. Activist bgan to call themselves gay instead of homosexual. In 1973 the National Gay Task Force launced a campaign to make gay and lesbians a protected group under laws covering employment and housing rights.
  17. Vietnamization
    President Richard Nixon introduced his policy of Vietnamization. The plan was to encouarge the south vietnamese to take more responsibilty for fighting the war. It was hoped the policy would eventually enable the U.S. to withdraw gradually all their soldiers from Vietnam.
  18. Free Speech Movement
    A student protest, which took place during 1964-1965 on the campus of UC Berkely. It started after administrators banned political activity in Sproul Plaza. In protests unprecedented at the time, students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom. By January 3, 1965, the new acting chancellor, Martin Meyerson, established provisional rules for political activity on the Berkeley campus, designating the Sproul Hall steps an open discussion area during certain hours of the day and permitting tables. This applied to the entire student political spectrum, not just the liberal elements that drove the FSM.
  19. Watergate
    Scandals during the Nixon Admin where members of the executive branch organized perceived opponets and were charged with violation of public trust, bribery and contempt of congress. Two former FBI and CIA agents hired by Nixon burglarized Ellsberg (trusted Pentagon insider) Psychiatrist's office in an unsuccessful effort to discredit him. Creep operatives were arraging illegal wire taps at DNC HQ, part of a campaign of dirty tricks against democrats. The watergate burglars were arrsted and found guilty. Nixon became the first president to resign.
  20. Pentagon Papers
    The Johnson Admin had lied not only to the public, but also to congress. Daniel Ellsberg turned over most of the papers. It revealed that the U.S. deliberately expanded its war with the bombing in Cambodia and Laos, none of this was reported to the media. Johnson promised not to "seek no wider war' during his 1964 presidential campaign. The U.S. citizens started not to trust the government.
  21. Reganomics
    Policies promoted by President Ronald Regan during the 1980s. He wanted to reduce government spending, reduce government regulation of the economy. Many people lost their businesses and investments because the wealthy did not invest like Reagan thought they would instead they bought mansions and luxury cars. 40% of the wealth was controlled by only 1% of the populations. Low taxes, low social services, and high military spending did not work.
  22. Savings and Loan Scandal
    The rip off began in 1980 the government raised the federal insurance on S & L from 40,000 to 100,000 even though the typical savings account was only around 6,000. The ultimate cost of the crisis estimated to have totaled around 160 billion and about 124.6 billion was directly paid by the US government under the leadership of George H. W. Bush. The Tax Reform Act of 1986 decreased the value of many investments. The deregulation of S & L gave them many capabilties of banks.
  23. Homophile Organizations
    Was an umbrella organization for a number of homophile organizations. Formed in 1966, NACHO was modeled on an earlier organization, East Coast Homophile Organizations (ECHO), that formed in 1963 to coordinate the activities of homophile groups from New York City, Washington, D.C., and Philadelphia.[1] The goal of NACHO was to expand that coordination to homophile organizations throughout North America.[2] Homophile activists were motivated in part by an increase in mainstream media attention to gay issues. Although its existence was brief, NACHO helped start dozens of local gay groups across the country and issued position papers on a variety of LGBT-related issues. It organized national demonstrations, including a May 1966 action against military discrimination that included the country's first gay motorcade.[13] Through its legal defense fund, NACHO challenged anti-gay laws and regulations ranging from immigration issues and military service to the legality of serving alcohol to homosexuals.[
  24. Civil Rights Movement
    Was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. By 1965, the emergence of the Black Power movement (1966–1975) began to gradually eclipse the original "integrated power" aims of the civil rights movement that had been espoused by Martin Luther King, Jr.. Advocates of Black Power argued for black self-determination, and asserted that the assimilation inherent in integration robs Africans of their common heritage and dignity. The Chicano Movement, also known as the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement and El Movimiento, was the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that sought political empowerment and social inclusion for Mexican-Americans around a generally nationalist argument. The Chicano movement blossomed in the 1960s and was active through the late 1970s in various regions of the U.S. The movement had roots in the civil rights struggles that had preceded it, adding to it the cultural and generational politics of the era. When the movement dealt with practical problems in the 1960s, most activists focused on the most immediate issues confronting Mexican-Americans; unequal educational and employment opportunities, political disfranchisement, and police brutality. In the heady days of the late 1960s, when the student movement was active around the globe, the Chicano movement brought about more or less spontaneous actions, such as the mass walkouts by high school students in Denver and East Los Angeles in 1968 and the Chicano Moratorium in Los Angeles in 1970.
  25. WWII
    World War II, or the Second World War[1] (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945 which involved most of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organised into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant action against civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it was the deadliest conflict in human history[2]. Estimates range from fifty million to over seventy million fatalities. The war ended with the total victory of the Allies over Germany and Japan in 1945. The war was fought between the Allies -- America, Britain, British Commonwealth forces and the Soviet Union -- against the Axis powers: Germany, Italy and Japan. The Allies were supported militarily by communist-led resistance movements throughout Europe [3] and the Far East
  26. Herbert Hoover & Franklin Roosevelt
    An analysis of U.S. Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt with regard to their handling of the Great Depression. While Hoover took a conservative approach to the depression, Roosevelt favored greater government involvement in the economy. Feeling that support for the depression should come from state or local governments, He was slow to react. Also, in the past the minor depressions or 'Panics' eventually dissipated as the economy stabilized. When the economy did not stabilize, he set up a couple of reforms which did too little, and were too late in nature. He set up the Hawley-Smoot Tariff, which made tariff rates to be the highest in history, which was designed to protect American business. Finally realizing that some government action was needed to bring the United States out of its depression, he created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. This made it so principal institutions, such as railroads, banks and life insurance companies would be eligible for federal emergency loans. Under this idea, money was thought to trickle down. The New Deal was the main feature in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's campaign against Hoover's reelection. It was apparent in Franklin's first years as president, that the New Deal program was going to follow the three Rs relief, recovery and reform. First, to bring relief to the nation, FDR instituted the Brain Trust which consisted of highly educated advisors which he used for advice on economic matters.During Franklin's reelection, his second and last phase of the New Deal contained important relief programs and reforms. Some of these were The Works Progress Administration (WPA), the National Labor Relations Act, and Federal Taxes. The WPA was established so people would be provided with jobs on a massive scale. The National Labor Relations Act allowed workers to join unions and bargain with their business employers. Franklin also significantly increased the income tax upon the wealthy.In conclusion, Roosevelt and Hoover had two different philosophies when it came to governing. Roosevelt felt that the government should be very involved in helping out the economy. Hoover believed the government should hold to Lassie Faire.
Card Set