Abdomen Boards Review Pt 1

  1. Pampiniform plexus
    Testicular veins within the scrotal sac that merge to form the testicular vein within the spermatic cord
  2. Left testicular vain drains into the ____ where as the right testicular vain drains into the ____.
    • Left drains into the left renal vein
    • Right drains in to the IVC
  3. Prominent rete testes are also known as
    Tubular ectasia
  4. Normal measurements of the testes
    • Length 3 to 5 cm
    • AP 2 to 3 cm
    • Transverse 2 to 3 cm
  5. Normal measurement of the epididymal head
    10 to 12 mm
  6. The majority of testicular neoplasms are
    Malignant germinal cell tumors
  7. Most frequent testicular carcinoma and sonographic pattern
    • Mixed germ cell
    • Inhomogeneous with cystic component
    • Course calcifications
  8. Testicular tumors that autonomously secrete androgen
    • Sartoli Leydig
    • Sertoli Leydig
    • Choriocarcinoma
  9. Most frequent secondary neoplasm of the testis
    Malignant lymphoma (due to the direct path testicular arteries to aorta)
  10. Metastasis associated with spread to the testicle
    • (#1)Malignant lymphoma
    • Leukemia, lung cancer, prostate carcinoma, melanoma, kidney, colon, stomach, pancreas
  11. Calcifications of the testicle concerning of malignancy
    Less than five hyperechoic foci per image
  12. Classic sonographic pattern of an epidermoid testicular cyst
    "onionskin" pattern
  13. 2 types of testicular torsion
    • 1: Intravaginal occurs most frequently at puberty
    • 2:Extravaginal testicular torsion
    • Occurs in newborns due to poor testicular attachment allowing scrotal contents to twist
  14. Differential diagnosis for scrotal pain
    Torsion, epididymitis/orchitis, strangulated hernia, neoplasm
  15. Describe the salvage rate of testicular torsion based on number of hours/days after onset of pain
    • Surgery within five hours: 80 to 100% salvage rate
    • More than 20 hours: less than 20% salvage rate
  16. Missed torsion occurs after how long?
    1-10 days
  17. Hepatitis A
    • Infectious hepatitis
    • Transmitted by fecal oral routefound more frequently in children and young adults
    • ALT and AST elevation correlating to severity of infection
  18. Hepatitis B
    • A.k.a. serum or transfusion hepatitis
    • Associated with drug use and contaminated transfusion
    • Can become chronic
  19. Hepatitis C
    • Many causes, often unknown
    • transmitted parenterally(needle stick)
    • ALT levels may vary between normal and marked elevation
  20. Increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with:
    • Cirrhosis
    • Hepatitis B and C
  21. Sonographic pattern of lymphoma metastasis to the liver
  22. Sonographic pattern of colon carcinoma metastasis to the liver
  23. Earliest signs of cirrhosis
    • Portal vein wall masking
    • Increased attenuation
    • Surface nodularity
  24. Most common cause of cirrhosis
    Portal hypertension
  25. Most common causes of pyogenic abscess of the biliary system
    Ascending cholangitis specific to common bile duct
  26. Symptoms of a hematoma
    • Pain
    • Decreased hematocrit/ RBC count
    • Shock
  27. Dilated IVC and hepatic veins are associated with
    Congestive heart failure
  28. Kaposi's sarcoma is associated with
  29. Proximal common bile duct measurement
    4 to 5 mm
  30. Distal common bile duct measurement
    4-6 mm
  31. Upper limit of gallbladder wall measurement
    3 mm
  32. Most common location of stones in the ductal system
    In the common bile duct at the pancreatic head
  33. Most frequent anomaly of the gallbladder
    Phrygian cap
  34. Most frequent anomaly of the bile duct system
    Anterior position the right hepatic artery to the common hepatic duct
  35. Most common location of a choledochal cysts
    Common bile duct
  36. Sonographic Murphy's sign is associated with
    Acute cholecystitis
  37. Reynolds pentad includes
    • Right upper quadrant pain
    • Fever
    • Jaundice
    • Septic shock
    • Central nervous system depression
  38. Dilated CBD is considered greater than ___ mm.
    8 mm
  39. Most frequent complication of bile duct injury
  40. Klatskin tumor
    Cholangiocarcinoma at the level of the porta hepatis
  41. Caroli's disease is associated with what and is symptomatic at what age?
    • Infantile polycystic kidney disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis
    • Symptomatic between ages 5 to 20
  42. The thermometer sign is
    SMV merging with the portal splenic confluence
  43. Most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas
    Annular pancreas
  44. Sonographic pattern of the pancreas associated with cystic fibrosis
    • Hyperechoic due to multiple microcystic formation
    • Obstructed ducts lead to formation of retention cyst
  45. Pseudocyst are most commonly related to
    Acute pancreatitis
  46. Two most frequent causes of acute pancreatitis
    Alcoholism and biliary tract disease
  47. Dilated pancreatic duct is considered
    Greater than 2 mm
  48. Most frequent islet cell tumor
  49. Renal arteries are ____ to renal veins.
  50. Normal renal measurement
    • 9 to 13 cm in length
    • 2.5 to 3 cm anterior to posterior
    • 4 to 5 cm transfers
  51. Most common urinary tract anomaly
    Duplicated collecting system
  52. Ureterocele is associated with
    Duplicated collecting
  53. Most common vascular anomaly of the kidney
    Accessory renal artery
  54. Most common cause of acute renal failure
    Acute tubular necrosis
  55. Major sonographic sign of chronic renal failure
    Loss of corticomedullary junction
  56. Most common renal neoplasm in children
    Wilms tumor
  57. Most frequent benign neoplasm of the kidney
  58. Renal neoplasm associated with tuberous sclerosis
  59. Most common location of renal cyst
  60. Most common renal infection
  61. Renal fungal infections such as candidiasis are most frequently seen with
    Diabetic patients
  62. Pyelonephritis
    Result of bladder infection that spreads to kidney
  63. Progression of sonographic appearance of a hematoma
    • echogenic
    • complex
    • cystic
  64. Page kidney
    Chronic compression resulting in development of hypertension
  65. Sonographic pattern of an infarction
    • Fresh is hypoechoic
    • Old is hyperechoic
  66. Normal RI of the kidney
    0.7 or less
  67. RI value greater than 0.7 or difference of ___ compared to the unaffected kidney signifies obstruction
  68. Most common location of the renal stone
    • Proximal ureter
    • (adjacent to ureter-pelvic junction)
  69. Normal thickness of bladder wall when distended
    3 to 6 mm
  70. The urethra inserts at the ____ of the bladder
    Apex (anterior)
  71. The ureter inserts at the ____ of the bladder
    Base (posterior)
  72. Sonographic feature imperative to identification of diverticula
    Demonstration of neck merging with the bladder
  73. Muscle located posterior to right and left lobes of the thyroid
    Longs coli muscle
  74. Muscle located lateral to carotid artery and jugular vein
    Sternocleidomastoid muscle
  75. Strap muscles from anterior to posterior
    Sternothyroid, omohyoid, sternohyoid
  76. Normal measurements of the thyroid
    • Transverse less than 2 cm
    • AP less than 2.5 cm
    • Length less than 4 cm
    • Isthmus less than 3 mm
  77. Thyroid antibodies are most frequently found in cases of
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis and graves disease
  78. Thyroid primarily secretes
    T4, and very little T3
  79. Most common clinically significant congenital anomaly
    Thyroglossal duct cyst
  80. Sonographic pattern of a thyroglossal duct cyst
    Midline cyst or mass interior to trachea
  81. Peripheral calcifications in thyroid pathology are most likely associated with
  82. Most common types of thyroid cancer
    Papillary and follicular
  83. Typical sonographic pattern of papillary thyroid carcinoma
    • 90% hypoechoic
    • Microcystic calcifications
    • Disorganized hyper vascularity
  84. Normal pattern of lymph nodes
    • Bean shaped
    • Homogeneous hypoechoic pattern
    • Hyperechoic hilum
  85. Sonographic patterns of follicular thyroid carcinoma
    Indistinguishable from benign adenoma
  86. Causes of hyperplasia and thyroid goiters
    • Iodine deficiency
    • Hereditary familial forms
  87. Hashimoto's thyroiditis
    • Hypothyroidism
    • The initial destructive phase hyperthyroidism
  88. Graves disease
  89. Examples of diffuse thyroid disease
    • Hashimoto's thyroiditis
    • Goiter- micronodular
    • Graves' disease
  90. Most common type of thyroiditis
  91. Hypervascular "thyroid storm" is associated with
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  92. Most common form of thyrotoxicosis associated with diffuse enlargement of the thyroid
    Graves' disease ( hyperthyroid )
  93. Most common cause of hyperparathyroidism
    Due to a single adenoma
  94. Typical sonographic pattern of parathyroid adenoma
    • Hypoechoic and hypervascular
    • Well circumscribed hyperechoic capsule
  95. The testes are enclosed in an outer fibrous layer called
    Tunica albuginea
  96. Peritoneum surrounding each testis
    Tunica vaginalis
  97. This normal structure can sometimes be seen in presence of a hydrocele
    Appendix testis
  98. Testicular arteries are branches of the
    Aorta and originate inferior to the renal arteries
  99. Direction of flow in testicular arteries
    Capsular, then centripetal, then towards the mediastinum testes
  100. Testicular artery is with in that stuff friends and epididymis
    Deferential arteries
  101. Testicular artery branches within the scrotal wall and muscle
    Cresmatic arteries
Card Set
Abdomen Boards Review Pt 1