Psychology Final

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  1. Gender
    Gender is defined as a set of characteristics or traits that are associated with a certain biological sex, either male or female. These characteristics are generally referred to as “masculine” or “feminine.”
  2. Gender roles
    the pattern of behaviour, personality traits and attitudes defining masculinity or femininity in a certain culture. Determined by upbringing that may or may not conform to a person's gender identity.
  3. a term used to describe our patterns of emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction—and our sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions. A person's sexual orientation is not a black or white matter; sexual orientation exists along a continuum, with exclusive attraction to the opposite sex on one end of the continuum and exclusive attraction to the same sex on the other.
    Sexual orientation
  4. Gender role stereotypes
    which are over-generalizations about the characteristics of an entire group based on gender, as in women or men.
  5. Gender identity is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine, and is often shaped early in life.

    Those that identify with the role that corresponds to the sex assigned to them at birth (for example, they are assigned male at birth and continue to identify as a boy and later a man) are called cisgender.

    Individuals who identify with a role that is different from their biological sex (for example, they are assigned male at birth but feel inwardly that they are a girl, or a gender other than a boy) are called transgender.

    Recent terms such as genderqueer, genderfluid, gender variant and gender non-conforming are used by individuals who do not identify as either transgender or cisgender, but identify as existing somewhere along a spectrum of genders, often in a way that is continuously evolving.

    Although the formation of gender identity is not completely understood, many factors have been suggested as influencing its development, including biological factors, social factors, language, social and economic power, and social learning theory.

    According to proponents of queer theory, gender identity is not a rigid or static identity but can continue to evolve and change over time.
    Social learning of Gender-role development
  6. simply a reaction to a stimulus that disturbs our physical or mental equilibrium. In other words, it's an omnipresent part of life.
  7. a psychological term that refers to long-term exhaustion and diminished interest in work.
  8. a psychological attribute that indicates how people explain to themselves why they experience a particular event, either positive or negative.
    Explanatory styles
  9. having friends and other people, including family, to turn to in times of need or crisis to give you a broader focus and positive self-image.
    Social support
  10. Coping
    expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict.
  11. Types of coping
    appraisal-focused: Directed towards challenging one's own assumptions, adaptive cognitive

    problem-focused: Directed towards reducing or eliminating a stressor, adaptive behavioral

    emotion-focused: Directed towards changing one's own emotional reaction
  12. The presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.
  13. characterized by uncontrollable episodes of fear and its physical manifestations, such as heart palpitations, sweating, and dizziness.
    Panic attack
  14. (PTSD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    is an anxiety disorder that may develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which severe physical harm occurred or was threatened.
  15. OCD
    an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations, or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something.Often the person carries out the behaviors to get rid of the obsessive thoughts, but this only provides temporary relief.
  16. Personality disorders
    Has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and to people.
  17. negative symptoms
    Thoughts, feelings, or behaviors normally present that are absent or diminished in a person with a mental disorder.
  18. Positive symptoms
    Those that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in people with schizophrenia. They can include delusions, disordered thoughts and speech, and tactile, auditory, visual, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations, typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis.
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Psychology Final
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