Equine Management

  1. Scotch Hobble application
    • -use a 35' to 40' lead
    • 1) tie noose around base of the neck
    • 2) run lead between front legs towards intended leg to be secured
    • 3) tie hobble strap around pastern and attach to rope
    • 4) pull hind leg cranially so that toe is just off the ground and secure rope back towards noose with quick release knot
  2. 4 Stock facts
    • -most commonly used in a clinic
    • -usually made of pipe
    • -not more than 30" wide
    • -never leave horse unattended
  3. 2 steps to Tieing up a horse
    • 1) only allow a neck's length
    • 2) always tie a quick release or slip knot
    • 3) tie to a place that is sturdy, cannot be eaten, pulled up or break
  4. 4 steps to Haltering a horse
    • 1)work with the head- alleviate fear by calmly petting cheeks
    • 2)use a 8-10 ft lead rope
    • 3) walk around throat latch area close to horse
    • 4)avoid walking in blind spots of horse
  5. Horse blind spots
    directly in front and behind
  6. Equine Behaviors
    • 1) treat as companion animals
    • 2) treat as  individual personalities
    • 3) watch body, ear, nostril, eye, and tail movment/positions
    • 4) assess temperment before approaching
    • 5) approach slowly with confidence
  7. Communication methods when dealing with horses
    • Touch
    • Talk
    • Body language
  8. Horse Dental Formula
  9. "Rule of Eights"
    • 8 days - i1 come in
    • 8 weeks - i2 come in
    • 8 months - i3 comes in

  10. weanling
    young horse no longer nursing but less than 1 year old
  11. foaling
    the act of giving birth to a foal
  12. yearling
    young horse about 1-2 years old
  13. foal
    newborn horse
  14. gelding
    neutered male horse
  15. filly
    intact female horse that has not had a foal
  16. mare
    intact female horse that has had a foal
  17. colt
    young intact male horse
  18. Stallion
    Adult intact male horse
  19. Horse Temperature
    99-101.5o F
  20. Horse Life span
    20-30 years
  21. Horse Respiratory Rate
    15-20 rpm
  22. Horse Heart Rate
    28-40 bpm
  23. Bishoping
    the grinding of the cups of the incisors to mask the age of the horse
  24. floating teeth
    filing down of points on the premolars and molars of horses
  25. 3 minimum requirements for Appaloosa
    • 1) white sclera
    • 2) striped hooves
    • 3) mottled skin around eyes, muzzle and genitalia
  26. Mule
    a cross between a Jack and a mare
  27. Jack
    male donkey
  28. Jenny
    female donkey
  29. Hinny
    a cross between a stallion and a jenny
  30. Thoroughbred foundation sires
    • Darley Arabian
    • Godolphin Arabian
    • Byerly Turk
  31. Horse uses
    • Past: food source
    • Present: transportation/work/leisure
  32. 3 undomesticated species
    Zebra, wild African ass, Przewalski horse
  33. Horse Breeds of Spanish origin
    • Andalusian
    • Peruvian Paso
    • Paso Fino
    • Mustang
  34. Horse bred by Nez Perce Native Americans
  35. King Solomon's Horses
  36. What are Tennessee Walking horses known for?
    The Running Walk
  37. What horse is born dark but turns light grey as they age?
  38. French draft horse with Arabian influence
  39. Horse breed that breeds true to chestnut color
    Suffolk Punch
  40. Largest breed of horse
  41. Red Roan
    white hairs intermixed with bay
  42. Strawberry Roan
    white hairs intermixed with chestnut/sorrel
  43. Blue Roan
    white hairs intermixed with black
  44. Pony of the Americas
    • Must have appaloosa coloring
    • Cross between Shetland Pony and Appaloosa
  45. Skewbald tobiano
    any color other than black with white that crosses over the back and extends downward
  46. Skewbald overo
    any color other than black with white that does not cross the dorsal line
  47. Piebald tobiano
    black horse with white that crosses the dorsal line
  48. Piebald overo
    black horse with white that does not cross the dorsal line
  49. Difference between a paint and a pinto
    A paint can only be of Quarterhorse breeding
  50. 2 basic Appaloosa patterns
    • blanket
    • leopard
  51. Snip
    white marking on nose between the nostrils
  52. Star
    white marking of any shape on the forehead
  53. Stripe
    white line down the face
  54. Blaze
    white band down the face but does break the cheek line
  55. Bald or Apron face
    white from forehead to muzzle, extending around eyes and usually breaks the cheek line
  56. coronet
    white around the coronary band
  57. pastern
    white from top of hoof to bottom of fetlock joint
  58. Fetlock
    white from top of hoof to fetlock joint
  59. Half stocking
    white from top of hoof to halfway up cannon
  60. 3/4 stocking
    white from top of hoof to 3/4 way up cannon
  61. full stocking
    white all the way up to the carpus or hocks
  62. 5 Foal Restraint
    • -try to keep mother in sight (if she gets to agitated,must remove)
    • -if foal gets to stress, stop immediately
    • -corner against stall wall
    • -hold with one arm around chest and the other raises the tail over the back
  63. 3 types of twitches
    • Rope twitch
    • Chain twitch
    • Humane twitch
  64. Parts of Equine digestive tract
    Mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, right ventral colon, sternal flexure, left ventral colon, pelvic flexure, left dorsal colon, diaphragmatic flexure, right dorsal colon, transverse colon, small colon, rectum
  65. Auscultation
    to listen with a stethoscope
  66. Borborygmus
    rumbling or gurgling noises of the gut of a horse
  67. How do you auscultate a horses' abdomen during an exam?
    in the quadrant format clockwise.
  68. Esophageal Obstruction etiology
    • "choke"
    • dry grains that have been greedily eaten or sometimes alfalfa cubes
  69. Esophageal Obstruction symptoms
    • enlargement of cervical esophagus
    • regurgitation of feed: water and saliva through mouth and nostrils
    • holding neck straight out or arching
  70. Esophageal Obstruction complication
    • Aspiration pneumonia
    • rupture of esophagus
  71. Esophageal Obstruction treatment
    • Pass nasogastric tube, warm gentle gavage under sedation
    • Surgical removal of obstruction if other means do not work
    • Feed small quantities of soft food after removal
    • Broad spectrum antibiotics to prevent aspiration pneumonia
  72. Prevention of Esophageal Obstruction
    • Place rocks in feed to slow down eating
    • Regular dental care
  73. Horse Bots
    • Etiology - Gasterophilus larva
    • Clinical Signs - mild gastric or no signs at all
    • Diagnosis - sometimes presence of eggs on forelegs
    • Treatment - Routine botacide in fall after flies disappear
  74. Colic Etiologies
    • Small intestine volvulus and strangulation
    • Intussusception
    • Impaction of the ileum
    • Thromboembolic mesenteric vascular disease
    • Large colon impaction
    • Cecal impaction
    • Sand ingestion
    • Colonic volvulus
    • Enteroliths
  75. Mild Colic Clinical signs
    • HR: 40-60 bpm
    • RR: 20-30 rpm
    • Temp: 99-100.5 (normal)
    • MM - pale pink
    • CRT 1-2 second
    • Gut sound present and normal
    • Normal passage of feces
    • mild pain level
  76. Moderate Colic Clinical Signs
    • HR: 60-80 bpm
    • RR: 30-40 rpm
    • Temp: 99-100.5 (normal)
    • MM: pale pink - dark red
    • CRT: 2-4 seconds
    • Decreasing gut sounds
    • Small, hard fecal ball passage
    • Moderate pain level
  77. Severe Colic Clinical Signs
    • HR: 80+
    • RR: 40+
    • Temp: Under 99 or over 103
    • MM - Reddish/purplish
    • CRT- 5+ seconds
    • Absent gut sounds
    • No fecal passage
    • Severe pain level
  78. Parts of the Colic Evaluation
    • 1) Temperature
    • 2) Heart Rate
    • 3) Respiratory Rate
    • 4) Peripheral pulses: submandibular artery, facial artery
    • 5) MM color / CRT
    • 6) PCV/TP
    • 7) Nasogastric Tube Intubation
    • 8) Abdominocentesis
  79. Nasogastric Tube Intubation findings
    • Yellow Green Color - bile reflux
    • Reddish Color - mucosal damage or hemorrhage within intestinal tract
  80. Abdominocentesis findings
    • Clear to yellow with slight turbidity - normal
    • Reddish color with increased turbidity - Intestinal devitalization
    • Reddish brown - Intestine necrosis
    • Flakes of feed/ingesta in fluid - gastric/intestinal rupture or inappropriate needle placement
  81. Equine Core Vaccines
    • Eastern/Western Enchephalomyelitis
    • Rabies
    • Tetanus
    • West Nile Virus
  82. Vaccines we used at Tomball on the horses
    Encevac TC-4: Equine Influenza, WEE/EEE, Tetanus toxoid

    Strepvac II: Streptococcus equi
  83. Dewormer used on horses at Tomball
    Zimecterin Gold: praziquantel, ivermectin
  84. Eqvalan Liquid/Paste
  85. Panacur granules/paste/suspension
  86. Anthelcide EQ paste
  87. Task Granules
  88. Equizole A Liquid
    Piperazine, thiabendazole
  89. Stongid paste, Strongid T
    Pyrantel pamoate
  90. Strongid C
    Pyrantel tartrate
  91. Definition of Anesthesia
    loss of feeling or sensation
  92. Definition of analgesia
    Relief of pain without loss of consciousness
  93. Definition of sedation
    act of calming, decreasing excitability and irritability: animal will remain standing
  94. This is the type of anesthesia that is produced by the controlled administration of gaseous or volatile agents via the respiratory system
    Inhalant Anesthesia
  95. Advantage of Inhalant Anesthesia v. Intravenous
    • 1) easier to control level of anesthetic depth
    • 2) used for procedures greater than 1 hour
  96. Disadvantages of Inhalant Anesthesia
    • 1) requires the use of an anesthetic machine
    • 2) requires the use of oxygen
    • 3) requires the use of an endotracheal tube
  97. What must be done prior to anesthetic induction to reduce risk during intubation?
    The oral cavity must be flushed out with dosing syringe and clean water to remove any food or foreign matter that may be aspirated.
  98. 3 Common Inhalant Anesthetics
    • Halothane
    • Isofluorane
    • Nitrous Oxide - needs oxygen to prevent hypoxia
  99. What 2 conditions occur if an horse is positioned wrong during anesthesia?
    • nerve damage
    • rhabdomyolysis
  100. What 2 things dictates artificial manipulation of equine estrous cycles?
    1) Breed association age requirements - pressure to have foals born as close to Jan 1st as possible.

    2) Economic pressures - maximize maturation before artificial birthday
  101. What 2 ways is the mare's cycle artificially changed?
    Manipulation of physical environment - artificial lighting to create 16 hour days

    Hormone supplements
  102. What kind of cycle does a mare have?
    seasonally polyestrous
  103. What is the condition where an animal will cycle repeatedly during a given season?
    Seasonally polyestrous
  104. When is the natural breeding season of an equine?
    centers around long-day length - from late March to October - northern hemisphere

    reversed south of the Equator
  105. Mare estrus length
    21-22 days but can be 4-7 day shorter during breeding season
  106. 2 ways to tell a mare's optimal breeding time?
    • Ultrasound monitoring of follicular development
    • rectal palpation
  107. How long is mare Diestrus
    Consistent 15 days per hormone level
  108. When does behavioral receptivity occur
    1 day after ovulation
  109. Teasing "out"
    • mare resists stallions advances by:
    • kicking, squealing, pinned back ears, clamping tail between her legs
  110. Teasing "in"
    • mare shows estrus status by:
    • squatting, urinating, lifting of the tail, winks (everts her clitoris) on stallion approach
  111. Transition Phase
    • characterized by irregular estrus behaviors without ovulation
    • will always precede onset of cyclicity regardless of induction of cycle
  112. Treatment of transition phase behaviors
    Behaviors can be stopped by synthetic progesterones

    • Regu-Mate
    • Intervet
  113. What 3 things are involved with Breeding Soundness Exam?
    • Rectal palpation
    • Vaginal speculum examination
    • Uterine "CBC": culture, biopsy, cytology
  114. When is 3 times breeding examination called for?
    • Failure to become pregnant after breeding
    • At sale/before mare purchase
    • Before conception
  115. Which hand is used during rectal palpation of mare reproductive structures?
    The ob sleeve is placed on the non-dominant hand and lubricated after the tail has been wrapped by vet wrap
  116. What is used to evaluate ovarian structure?
    Ultrasonography: follicles appear black, corpora lutea appear grayish/webbed
  117. Appearance of uterus
    • visualized with ultrasonography
    • changes during estrus resembles cartwheel due to edema in endometrial folds
  118. "Clean hand, Dirty hand" technique
    aseptic technique required for all vaginal procedures (speculum exam, "cbc")

    • clean hand retrieves cleaning supplies
    • dirty hand cleans and preps areas as if for surgery

    It is important that NO water be added to the disinfectant soap
  119. Length of gestations
    11 months or about 330 days
  120. 5 parts of Vaginal Speculum examination
    • Checks for: (C'DUO)
    • Cervical trauma
    • Discharges - vaginal, cervical, uterine
    • Urine pooling in cranial vagina
    • Other conditions associated with subfertility
  121. 2 Indications of High Risk Parturition
    Vaginal discharge - indicative of placentitis or urine pooling

    Udder milk dripping or streaming - placentitis, twins, wrong delivery date calculation
  122. 6 Signs of impending parturition
    • "waxing teats" droplets of dried milk appear due to udder filling
    • Vulva elongates
    • Pelvic ligaments relax
    • Test colostral Ca levels: > 10-12 mmol/dL
    • Behavioral changes
    • Sweating
  123. Stage 1 Labor - KPLANT
    • Kicking at abdomen
    • Pacing
    • Lifting the tail head
    • Agitation
    • Nickering
    • Turning and biting at sides
  124. Stage 2 Labor - PAFFS
    • Placenta rupture
    • Allantoic fluid escaps
    • Forceful labor
    • Foal delivered in 30 minutes or else assisted or Cesarean
    • Strip umbilical cord of blood and break near foal's body
  125. Stage 3 Labor
    • Delivery of placenta
    • Weight and evaluate placenta to ensure intact
  126. 5 Postpartum complications
    • colic
    • large colon volvulus
    • uterine artery hemorrhage
    • retained placenta
    • peritonitis
  127. Foal's first 24 hours
    • suck reflex begins shortly after birth
    • standing within 1-2 hours
    • successful nursing in 6 hours
    • first urination around 12 hours
    • passage of meconium in first few hours (may admin an enema to prevent retained meconium)
    • capable of running in 24 hours
  128. Foal pulse
    60-80 bpm
  129. Foal respiration rate
    10-20 rpm
  130. Nap/Nursing habits of foals
    • nap - 10-20 minute periods
    • nursing - 5 minute periods
  131. Weight gain of foals
  132. 4 Normal foal neurological findings
    • base-wide stance at first
    • exaggerated steps at first
    • jerky movements
    • when restrained, initially goes limp
  133. 3 things to look for in Routine monitoring of Foal for:
    • attitude
    • aptitude
    • urine and fecal production
  134. Routine care of umbilical remnant
    1% iodine,tid/qid x 2 days
  135. FPT
    Failure of passive transfer of maternal antibodies for tetanus

    IgG <800mg/dL after 24 hours - through ELISA snap test
  136. FPT treatments
    detected less than 24 hours = high quality colostrum via nasogastric tube

    detected after 24 hours = IV plasma
  137. Foal energy requirement
  138. Sources of nutrition and methods of feeding
    Mare (dam): ideal source of nutrition - milk mare in cases of foal inability to nurse

    Nurse mare: bond foal to nurse mare if she is sole milk provider

    Bottle feeding - labor intensive and potential for aspiration pneumonia

    Bucket feeding - commonly used with orphans
  139. 4 parts of Nasogastric tube feeding
    • primarily used with critically ill foals
    • can be left indwelling if placed right
    • must be checked before each feeding
    • small volumes increasing from 5-10%bw over 12 feedings
  140. 3 things in the Assessment for risk based vaccines
    • Geographic location
    • Use of horse - large gatherings of horses
    • safety of vaccine vs. risk
  141. Lameness definition:
    A manifestation of asymmetry in movement.
  142. What is lameness an indication of?
    Structural or functional disorder in one or more limbs
  143. What 2 ways can lameness manifest?
    • Progression of movement
    • Standing in one position
  144. What are the 3 effects of lameness?
    • 1) Restricted movement
    • 2) Reduced performence
    • 3) Abnormal gait
  145. 3 goals of the lameness examination:
    • 1) determine which leg is affected
    • 2) Differentiate between supporting and swinging-leg lameness
    • 3) Establish the components producing lameness
  146. What are the 2 components producing lameness?
    • musculoskeletal and/or
    • neurologic
  147. This is the classification lameness notice when horse is supporting weight on the foot or when the horse lands on it.
    Supporting limb lameness
  148. Common causes of supporting limb lameness
    Injury to bones, joints, collateral ligaments or motor nerves and injuries to the hoof
  149. This classification of lameness is seen when the leg is in motion
    Swinging leg lameness
  150. Common causes of swinging-leg lameness
    Pathologic changes involving joint capsules, muscles, tendons, tendon sheath or bursas
  151. This classification of lameness is evident when the limb is moving and when supporting weight
    Mixed lameness
  152. This classification of lameness causes an uneven distribution of weight on another limb(s) which produces lameness in previously sound limbs
    Complementary lameness
  153. Stationary phase of lameness exam:
    Assesses the horses position and posture while standing still from all sides
  154. Mobile phase of lameness exam:
    Horse is observed at a walk and trot laterally and coming/going to identify the limb or limbs and degree of lameness
  155. Head bob during forelimb evaluation
    Will fall on sound foot landing and rise when unsound foot lands
  156. Toe landing first indicates:
    navicular disease
  157. Head bob during hindlimb evaluation
    head will rise when the sound foot lands and lowers when the unsound foot lands
  158. Gluteal or "hip hike" during hindlimb examination
    The affected limb will be brought higher
Card Set
Equine Management