Pharynx - gutteral pouch, lymph nodes, parotid salivary gland, bilobed thyroid gland (can be enlarged in horses, this is normal)
Palpate larynx, slap test
What are you looking for when examining the neck?
Oesophagus - should not be visible down the left side unless the horse is suffering from choke
Jugular veins - pulsation
How does Horner's syndrome present in horses? What does it indicate?
Miosis, ptosis, protruding third eyelid
Ipsilateral facial vein with distension
It indicates damage to the sympathetic trunk
What are you listening for during auscultation of the lungs?
Normal breathing sounds
What is the apical impulse?
The point of maximal intensity (the point where the heart contracts most noticeably).
What valves are present on the a) left b) right side of the heart?
a) MAP (caudal to cranial)
What are the normal heart sounds?
'lu'lub dup de'
What are you listening for during auscultation of the heart?
Rate, rhythm, sounds, murmurs
What should you be looking for on external examination of the abdomen?
Change in shape
Loss of sub lumbar fossa
Describe how you would auscultate the abdomen
Each quadrant (4) should be auscultate for at least 1 min to determine whether intestinal contractions are present and normal in intensity or whether they are increased or decreased. This is described as borborygmi and can be rated 0,+,++,+++ (where zero is the worst with no sounds being heard)
What does the caecocolic orifice sound like?
This is a 'toilet flushing' sound that occurs every 30 seconds
What valve should you listen for when auscultating the abodmen?
What should you be looking for when examining the skin?
General skin/hair condition
Presence/absence of pruritus
Presence of lesions - type, distribution, symmetry
Should palpate entire skin surface for lumps/nodules
Where do horses tend to get marked pruritus e.g. due to sweet itch?