1. Complete fracture
    broken all the way through
  2. Oblique fracture
    45 degree angle to long axis of bone caused by angulation and compressive energy
  3. incomplete fracture
    bone damaged but remains in one piece
  4. open fracture
    skin broken
  5. closed fracture
    skin not broken
  6. comminuted fracture
    breaks into two or more fragments
  7. signs and symptoms of fracture
    • unnatural alignments
    • swelling
    • muscle spasms
    • tenderness
    • pain and impaired sensation
  8. dislocation
    temporary displacement of two bones in which articular cartilage loses contact entirely
  9. subluxation
    if contact between the surfaces is only partially lost
  10. tear in tendon
  11. tear in ligament
  12. tendinitis
    painful inflammation of tendon
  13. bursitis
    painful inflammation of bursae. Occurs primarily in middle years and caused by repeated trauma
  14. tendinosis
    from trauma and repetitive stress causing degradation of collagen fibers and pain
  15. avulsion
    complete separation of a tendon or ligament from its attachment
  16. epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
    inflammation of tendon where it attaches to a bone
  17. subluxation
    if contact between the surfaces is only partially lost
  18. muscle strain
    sudden, forced motion causing the muscle to become stretched beyond its normal capacity
  19. Myositis ossificans
    complication of localized muscle injury caused by scar tissue calcification and subsequent ossification
  20. Rhabdomyolysis/Myglobinuria
    (First seen in injuries after london air raids in WWII. Now seen with unresponsive drug OD and long-term immobility)

    life threatening complication of severe muscle trauma manifested by exess myoglobin, and intracellular muscle protein in the urine. most severe form is called CRUSH SYNDROME
  21. most severe from of rhabdomyolysis is called
    CRUSH syndrome
  22. Compartment syndromes
    Less severe and more localized form of myoglobinuria which can lead to Volkmann ischemic contracture in forearm or leg

    Volkmann ischemic contracture from compartment syndrome
  23. osteoporosis
    decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone, reduced physical activity, inadequate vitamins C and D, insufficient dietary Ca+ and Mg+

    causes reduced bone mass or density and imbalance in bone resorption and formation
  24. Osteomalacia (adult)  Rickets (children)
    deficiency of vitamin D lowers absorption of Ca+ from intestines, low serum phosphate. 

    indequate and delayed mineralization, causing radiolucent bands and bone fractures/ vertebral collapse
  25. Osteomyelitis
    most often a staphylococcal infection, contaminated open wound or hematogenous bone infection

    impaired blood supply leads to necrosis. Fever, Pain
  26. bone rumors may originate from
    bone cells, cartilage, fibrous tissue, marrow, or vascular tissue
  27. Benign bone tumor
    destroy small areas of bone, tend to be limited to anatomic confines of host bone, and have uniform and well-defined border with a geographic pattern easily separated from normal bone
  28. Malignant bone lesions
    moth-eaten pattern with permeative pattern bone destruction that cannot be easily separated from normal bone. Adjacent areas partially destroyed too
  29. Osteosarcomas
    malignant bone-forming. large destructive and most often found in bone marrow; has moth-eaten pattern
  30. chondrosarcoma
    chondrogenic of middle-aged and older adults
  31. fibrosarcoma
    malignant collagenic in middle aged adults
  32. giant cell tumors
    form myelogenic tissue with wide age distribution between 20-40 years of age
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