Sensory function

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  1. what are the disorders of hearing?
    • Conductive hearing loss: Problem of conduction bt the external ear channal and the middle ear to the brain. -- otosclerosis, otitis media, and external otitis.
    • Sensorineural hearing loss: maybe loss of high pitch sensory. -- Presbycusis, Meniere Disease, aging, diabetes mellitus, noise exposure.
  2. Otosclerosis chts? etiologies? CM?
    • Bone resorption is follow by overgrowth of new bone, which doesn't let sclerotic bone move and decrease in the transmission of sound to the inner ear.
    • Etio: fixation of the stapedial.
    • CM: Tinnitus, hearing loss, ppor speech discrimination.
  3. Otitis Media chts? RF? types? CM?
    • Usually is a result of an upper respiratory infection that goes up the estachian tube all the way to the middle ear, causing an infection.
    • RF: pacifiers, GURD, daycare attendance, propped bottles.
    • Types: Chronic and acute otitis.
    • Chronic: its a chronic obstruction of the eustachian tube for prolonged periods of time.
    • Acute: its the most common one. follows the pathogen entering the estachian tube ... the bigges prob is high pressure can damage the tympanic membrane.
    • CM of CO: decreased hearing, snapping and popping, vertigo, pain.
    • CM of AO: pain, pulling in the ear, fever, tenderness over mastoid area.
  4. External otitis chts? etiologies? CM?
    • "swimmer's ear". removing the cerumen is not so good, bc of the protective mechanism it does.
    • Eti: Pseudomonas aerugenos (which can be detected by the smell), also fungi and trauma.
    • CM: pain when touching tragus, white particles on sides of canal, etc.
  5. Presbycusis chts? CM?
    • Gradual onset, bilateral, and result in difficulty hearing high pitch tones and conversational speech.
    • It is degenerative progressive disorder in older adults. It tends to be more gradual in women than men.
    • CM: hearing loss, dizziness, inability to hear high-pitched sounds (but they do well w hearing aids).
  6. Meniere disease chsts? CM?
    • Chronic disorder of the inner ear.
    • CM: Sudden vertigo that causes vomiting. The best thing to is to lay down and close ur eyes.
  7. Vetigo and Dizziness? Balance?
    • Vertigo: the room is going around. Usually a prob w the inner ear.
    • Dizziness: u are going around.
    • Balance: It is controlled by hair cells.
  8. What are the disorders of Vision?
    • Errors of refraction
    • Strabismus and amblyopia
    • Cataracts
    • retinal detachment
    • Glaucoma
    • COnjuctivitis
    • Macular Degeneration
  9. Errors of refraction chts? types?
    • erros in the formation of the patterns of light in the cornea. Correctable w lenses.
    • Types: Myopia, Hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.
    • Myopia: Nearsightedness, unable to see distant images -- front of the retina -- Corrected w concave lenses.
    • Hyperopia: Farsightedness -- behind the retina -- convex lenses.
    • Presbyopia: Pathology of the aging -- lost of accomodative capacity.
    • Astigmatism: Irregularity in the curvature of the cornea or lens -- Produces distorted image.
  10. what is strabismus and amblyopia? chrts? causes?
    • Strabismus: cross-eyedness -- cause is abnormal "set' of the fusion mechanism of the visual system.
    • Amblyopia: Poor vision of one or both eyes despite optical correction. -- causes: untreated strabismus -- Tx: aropine or patching of the stronger eye.
  11. Cataracts chts? causes? CM tx?
    • It is the clouding or opacity of the lens, blurred vision, loss of sight.
    • Causes: aging, trauma, congenital factors, metabolic disease, medications.
    • CM: Blurred vision, decreased night vision, abnormal presence of light in the visual field, white opacity of the lens.
    • Tx: surgical removal of the cataracts w replacement of the lens.
  12. Retina detachment chts? causes? CM?
    • Separation of the sensory layer of the retina from the choroid w sudden appearance of floating spots.
    • Causes: tumors, inflammation, trauma, cataract extraction.
    • Once having a detachments, have 50% more chances to get another one.
    • CM: floaters, sense of veil coming down in visual field.
  13. Diabetic Retinopathy chts? CM? prevention?
    • It is a disorder of the retinal vessels. Formation of microaneurysms and hemorrhage, leakage and retinal detachment.
    • CM: blurred, darkened, distorted vision; visual changes fluctuate.
    • Preventive: Thigh glycemic control and careful monitoring.
  14. Macula degeneration chts? causes? CM?
    • Degeneration of the macular area of the retina w progressive loss of central vision.
    • Causes: idippathic, injury, inflammation, nutritional, hereditary.
    • CM: loss of central vision, yellow spots on macula, visual distortion.
    • * amsler graft.
  15. Glaucoma chts? types?
    • increased intraocular pressure and progressive vision loss. It is not a preventable disease, but very well manage.
    • Glaucoma causes blindness by pressure on the optic nerve.
    • types: chronic open angle and acute angle closure.
    • Chronic open-angle glaucoma: Intraocular pressure increased by a decrease in the outflow of aqueous humor. --CM: tunnel vision gradually. -- TX:  beta adrenergic eyedrops and prostaglandin analogue eye drops.
    • Acute angle narrow-closure glaucoma: Occurs when angle bt pupil and lateral aspect of cornea is narrow; total closure of the canal of schlemm. -- It is a medical emergency -- Tx: decrease intraocular pressure w carbonic anhydrate inhibitors, miotics. Laser iridectomy may be used.
    • CM NAG: sudden onset of eye pain and impaired vision associated w pupil dilation.
  16. Conjunctivitis chrts? causes?
    • Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
    • causes: viral, allergic, and bacterial.
    • Viral: pts have clear drainage.
    • Allergic: ppl w red eyes that use visine.
    • Bacterial:  usually caused by staphylococcus and it is highly contagious.
  17. Smell and taste chts? nerves?
    • It is chemical stimulation of specialized nerves fibers of the nose and mouth.
    • Olfatory: smell; under frontal lobe.
    • Gustatory: taste, parietal lobe.
  18. Epistaxis chts? causes?
    • Nosebleeds.
    • Causes: anterior and posterior.
    • Anterior: medication, drying, infection, trauma (90% common)
    • Posterior: blood dyscrasisas, HTN, diabetes, trauma (it is more sever).
  19. Sinusitis chts? causes? CM?
    • Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses.
    • If untreated can cause brain absesses.
    • Ppl can develop polyps, which could cause obstruction.
    • Causes: streptococcus.
    • CM: pain in the sinuses, headache, fever, malaise, purulent discharge.
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Sensory function
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