Chapter 6

  1. Affirmative Action
    policies designed to give special attention to members of a previously disadvantaged group
  2. Black Codes
    laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by most Southern states after WWI
  3. Brown v. Board (1954)
    school segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates 14th amendment (equal protection)
  4. civil rights
    government protected rights of individuals against arbitrary treatment by government. Ex: sex, race, origin, age, religion, sexual orientation.
  5. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    outlaw segregation in public facilities and racial discrimination. Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
  6. De-facto discrimination
    racial discrimination based from behavior, not law
  7. De-jure discrimination
    racial segregation that is the direct result of law.
  8. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
    • from Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination on basis of race, creed, origin, religion,
    • sex in hiring and firing.
  9. Equal Protection Clause
    section of the 14th amendment that guarantees that all citizens receive “equal protection of the law.”
  10. 14th Amendment
    one of the three Civil War amendments; guarantees equal protection and due process of the laws to all U.S. citizens.
  11. 15th Amendment
    one of the three Civil War amendment; specifically enfranchised newly freed male slaves.
  12. Grandfather Clause
    voting qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only those whose grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction
  13. Jim Crow Laws
    laws enacted by Southern States that discriminated against blacks by creating “Whites Only” in schools, theatres, and hotels
  14. 19th Amendment
    guaranteed women’s right to vote
  15. Plessy v. Fergusen (1896)
    • Plessy challenged a Louisiana statute requiring that railroads provide separate accommodations for blacks and whites. The court found separate but equal accommodations did not violate the equal
    • protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
  16. Poll Tax
    tax levied in many Southern states and localities that had to be paid before an eligible voter could cast a Ballot
  17. Strict Scrutiny
    a heighted standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the Constitutional validity of a challenged practice
  18. Suffrage Movement
    the drive for voting rights for woman that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920
  19. Suspect Classification
    Category or class, such as race that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court
  20. 13th Amendment
    one of the three Civil War amendments; specifically bans slavery in the United States
  21. Title 9
    provision of the Educational Amendments of 1972 that bars education institutions receiving federal funds from discriminating against female students
  22. Woman’s Equality Amendment (1923)
    “Equality of rights should not be denied or abridged by the United States or the State on account of sex”
Card Set
Chapter 6