PSYH 151- Chapter 14

  1. A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual
  2. A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling.
  3. In psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inheriting physic energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts
  4. In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id
  5. In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control
  6. In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards
  7. Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness
    defense mechanisms
  8. In Freud's theory, the idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures; the stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
    Psychosexual stages
  9. In psychoanalysis, a conflict occurring in the phallic (Oedipal) stage, in which a child desires the parent of the other sex and views the same sex-parent as a rival
    Oedipus complex
  10. In Jungian theory, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images that occur across all cultures
    collective unconscious
  11. Universal symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams; to Jungians, they reflect the collective unconscious
  12. A psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships, especially with the mother
    Object-Relations School
  13. Standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves
    Objective tests (inventories)
  14. A statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability (factor)
    factor analysis
  15. Raymond Cattle advanced the study of personality by...
    using factor analysis
  16. Which one of the Big Five typically decreases by age 40?
  17. Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and in many nonhuman species and are assumed to be innate
  18. a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group
  19. In social-cognitive learning theories, the two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits
    reciprocal determinism
  20. Unique aspects of a person's environment and experience that are not shared with family members
    nonshared environment
  21. A program of shared rules that governs the behavior of members of a community or society and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community
  22. Cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others
    individualist cultures
  23. Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes
    Collectivist cultures
  24. A psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential
    Humanist psychology
  25. To Carl Rogers, love or support given to another person with no conditions attached
    Unconditional Positive Regard
  26. A philosophical approach that emphasizes the inevitable dilemmas and challenges of human existence
Card Set
PSYH 151- Chapter 14
PSYH 151- Chapter 14