Drugs of eyes, skin

  1. dont need to know.
    Glaucoma? typer of glaucoma? What is IOP?
    • visual field loss secondary to optic nerve damage.
    • Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and Acute angle-closure glaucoma.
    • IOP: intraocular pressure.
  2. What is the main goal of drug therapy for glaucoma? what is the preferred route? are drugs always effective? what other treatments are there?
    • goal: facilitating aqueous humor outflow and reducing aqueous humor production.
    • Route: topical. Systemic effects relatively uncommon.
    • effectiveness: combination therapy is better than monotherapy. (usually 2 or 3 - drugs added up, when one doesn't work)
    • alternative tx: laser trabeculoplasty and trabeculectomy.
  3. what are first line therapy agents? second line?
    • First line: nonselective beta blockers agents,  Selective beta1 blockers, alpha2 adrenergic agonists, Prostaglandin analogs.
    • Secondary line: Cholinergic agonists (muscarinic agonists, and cholinergesterase inhibitors)  Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
  4. Describe first line agents? drugs? MOA? and AE?.
    • Beta adrenergic blockers: Nonselective and beta1 selective.
    • Nonselective: it means combination of Alpha and Beta-- Timolol -- decreases aqueous formation lowering pressure in the eye -- it could become systemic, cardiac reseptors (heart blocking, and bradycardia) and bronchospasm.
    • Selective: B1 -- Betaxolol (good DOC for COPD and sthma pts) -- decreased aqueous formation lowering the pressure in the eye -- cardiac receptors (heart block, bradycardia, hypotension) 
    • Prostaglandin Analogs: adrenal which helps w the immune response increasing aqueous outflow and open the channel of schelemm -- Latanoprost (xalatan) -Prost. -- brown pigmentation of the iris and eyelid.
    • Alpha2-adrenergic Agonist: dilate, decrease aqueous formation -- Brimonidine (alphagon) --  headaches, dry mouth, dry nose, altere taste, conjunctivitis, prutitus.
  5. Describe Second-line agents? Drugs? MOA? and AE? ONLY NEED TO KNOW FIRST LINE OF DRUGS.
    • Cholinergic agonist, Muscurenics-- stop secretion (in the eye is different than in the rest of the body) -- Pilocarpine, Miosis, blurred vision.
    • Chilinesterae inhibitors.
  6. list the following for thin to thick: cream, gel, ointment?
    gel --> cream --> ointment.
  7. AE of glucocorticoids? administration?
    • AE: thinning of the skin, stretch marks, purpura, possible systemic toxicity.
    • Admin:  apply in a thin fild and gently rub into the skin -- Do not use occlusive bandages, or tight fitting diapers or plastic pants.
  8. What are keratolytic agents for? primary agent?
    • Function: promotes shedding of horny layers of the skin.
    • Agents: Salicylic acid ( warts, and corns) -- Sulfur( acene, psoriasis, dermatitis) -- Benzoyl peroxide (proactive).
  9. treatment of Otitis Media? AOM? Preventions?
    When does it become Recurrent Otitis Media?
    • Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, codeine.
    • AOM: acute otitis media -- treated with amoxicillin, if not clavulanate (augmentin)
    • Preventions: breast-feed for 6 months -- avoid child care when sick -- influenza vaccine -- Pnuemoniae (streptococcus) vaccine.
    • ROM: AOM that occurs 3 or more time within 6 months, or 4 or more time within 12 yrs.
  10. What is swimmers ears? treatment?
    How to prevent fungal infections?
    • Acute otitis externa (OE)
    • Don't need oral antibiotics, but sometimes drops in the ear. the following:
    • Adult: ciprofloxacin.
    • Children: Cephalexin (keflex)
    • FI: use rubbing alcohol after swimming in lakes, oceans, and others.
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Drugs of eyes, skin