psych test ch8 & 9

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  1. Gender Roles and their Consequences
    • Gender-role socialization – process of learning the norms and roles that are expected of people in a particular society
    • Sexism – bias against people on the basis of their gender
    • Gender stereotypes – widely accepted beliefs about females'’ and males’ abilities, personality traits, and behavior patterns
  2. Male Gender Roles
    • Three Ps: provider, protector, and procreator
    • What this entails….
    • Rites of passage
    • Peers
    • Relationship with mom
    • During adolescence, often teased and shamed
    • Mask emotions and true selves
    • Society does not tolerate loneliness, helplessness, and fear in their “MEN”
    • Eventually become desensitized
  3. American Male Stereotypes
    • Emotional unavailability -A man tends to show his affection by being a “good
    • provider.”
    • Independence-A man is expected to be mainly self-reliant. Rather than admitting
    • that he needs anything from anyone, he must lead a life of exaggerated
    • independence.
    • Power and aggressiveness- A man is told that he must be powerful physically,
    • sexually, intellectually, and financially.
    • Denial of fears-A man is told that it is important to hide his fears, even in
    • situations where he is frightened.
    • Protection of his inner self-With other men he keeps himself hidden because
    • they are competitors and in this sense potential enemies.
    • Invulnerability -He cannot make himself vulnerable, as is evidenced by his
    • general unwillingness to disclose much of his inner experience.
    • Lack of bodily self-awareness-Common physical stress signals include
    • headaches, nausea, heartburn, muscle aches, backaches, and high blood
    • pressure, but men often ignore these stress symptoms, denying their
    • potential consequences and failing to address their causes.
    • Remoteness with other men-Although he may have plenty of acquaintances,
    • he rarely confides in male friends.
    • Driven to succeed-A man is told that it is important to win, to be competitive,
    • and to gain recognition, respect, and status.
    • Denial of feminine qualities-Men are frequently shut off from their emotional
    • selves because they see the subjective world of feelings as being essentially
    • feminine.
    • Avoidance of physical contact-A man has a difficult time touching freely or
    • expressing affection and caring for other men.
    • Rigid perceptions-A man tends to view gender roles as rigid categories.
    • Devotion to work-A man is socialized with the message that work is the most
    • important part of his identity.
    • Loss of the male spirit and experience of depression-Because he is cut off from his
    • inner self, he has lost a way to make intuitive sense of the world.
  4. Challenging Traditional Male Roles
    • Gender roles stem from need for division of labor
    • Increasing number of groups, workshops, conferences devoted to helping men break free of stereotypes
    • Traditional roles are not unhealthy for everyone, all the time
  5. Female Gender Roles
    • Resistant to traditional gender roles
    • Limiting gender stereotypes
    • poor self concept, wellbeing, and physical health
    • Caretaker of the family
  6. Female Stereotypes
    • Women are regarded as….
    • Warm, expressive, and nurturing
    • Non-aggressive
    • Dependent
    • Emotional and intuitive
    • Unaccomplished: family vs. career
    • Women must not deviate from their female role
  7. Women and Work
    • Women’s work choices opening up—Social inequality
    • Still less employed in jobs traditionally performed by men
    • There is still salary discrimination
    • Dual “Careers”
    • More women postponing marriage and children for careers and education
    • Multiple roles: worker AND homemaker
  8. Challenging Traditional Roles
    • Do these roles work for you? Do they help you to achieve your goals? Gain success?
    • Important to be aware of stereotypes so we can make choices about whether or not to accept these stereotypes
  9. Alternatives to Gender Role Expectations
    • Androgyny- both male and female
    • Carl Jung is both vvvvv
    • Animus – female’s masculine aspects
    • Anima – men’s feminine aspects
    • Gender-role transcendence
    • Going beyond rigid gender categories and allowing for flexible behaviors
    • Separates personality from biological sex
  10. Sexuality
    • You want me to do WHAT?!
    • Difficult to talk about personal concerns and fears
    • It’s all about open communication
    • Mutual empathy -the awareness that each partner in the relationship
    • cares for the other and knows that this care is reciprocated.
    • Important to set boundaries early
    • Ask for what you want
    • Common Concerns
  11. Developing Sexual Values
    • Sexuality is influenced by the values we learned in our family
    • Cultural values & Familial expectations
    • Abstinence is a valid choice
    • Honestly question yourself
    • What are your reasons for choosing to have or not have sex?
    • How do you feel about discussing sex?
    • Define your boundaries and enforce them
  12. guilt & misconceptions
    • GUILT over sexual feelings
    • Lack of control?
    • GUILT over sexual experiences
    • masturbation, affairs, promiscuity, “abnormal” sexual practices
    • MISCONCEPTIONS about sexuality
    • Become aware of verbal and non-verbal messages regarding sexuality and gender-role behavior
  13. Sensuality vs. sexuality
    • Sexuality- expressing ourselves through physical contact with another.
    • Sensuality- experiencing pleasure with all 5 senses
    • Sound
    • Touch
    • Taste
    • Sight
    • Smell
    • Sensuality does not always include sexual activity
    • Being present in the moment and not worrying about the outcome
    • Performance anxiety
Card Set
psych test ch8 & 9
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