Book: Chp. 18 Blood

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  1. the circulatory system is divided into these two things (547)
    • cardiovascular system
    • lymphatic system
  2. What 3 main things compose the cardiovascular system? (547)
    • blood
    • heart
    • blood vessels
  3. In addition to carrying respiratory gases and nutrients, what else does blood transport? (547)
    • hormones from the endocrine glands
    • conveys cells of the body's defense system to sites where they can fight infection
  4. Blood is a specialized type of CT, called formed elements, suspended in what? (547)
  5. What is the red matter on the bottom of a centrifuged sample of blood? (547)
  6. What is the key role of erythrocytes? (547)
    transport important blood gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxie
  7. This is known as the percentage of the blood volume that consists of erythrocytes. The average percent being 45%. (547)
  8. What is present at the junction between erythrocytes and plasma, and what does it contain? (547)
    Buffy coat: contains leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets (thrombocytes) which help stop bleeding.
  9. What in the blood helps stop bleeding, also called thrombocytes. (547)
  10. If erythrocytes make up 45% of the blood, what is the other 55%? (547)
  11. Although this is 90% water, it also contains 100 different kinds of molecules and nutrients such as simple sugars and Amino acids. (547)
    Blood plasma
  12. What are 3 main proteins plasma contains? (547)
    • Albumin
    • Globulins
    • Fibrinogen
  13. This plasma protein helps keep water from diffusing out of the bloodstream into the extracellular matrix of tissues. (547)
  14. This plasma protein include both antibodies and the blood proteins that transport lipids, iron, and copper. (547)
  15. This plasma protein is one of several molecules involved in a series of chemical reactions that achives blood clotting. (547)
  16. What is serum and how is it produced? (547)
    Serum is plasma from which the clotting factors have been removed by coagulation (allowing blood to stan which produces a clat that entangles the formed elements)
  17. ___a___ are formed elements of blood and have no nuclei and organelles. (548)
  18. T or F: erythrocytes can undergo mitosis (548)
    False: they cannot divide
  19. What is the average length of time erythrocytes live for? (548)
    a few hours to a few months
  20. 25 trillion of these are typically present in a healthy adult. (548)
  21. These are ideal measuring tools in histology due to their relative uniform in size  (548)
  22. These are shaped as biconcave discs (discs with depressed centers. (548)
  23. This oxygen-carrying protein packs the cytoplasm of erythrocytes (549)
  24. What gives blood its red color?
    The oxidation of the iron atoms of hemoglobin
  25. What benefit does the biconcave shape of blood cells give?
    The shape provides 30% more surface area allowing rapid difusion of oxygen into and out of erythrocytes
  26. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and do not consume the oxygen it carries, so it generates energy using this process.
    Anaerobic mechanisms.
  27. This is the only formed elements with the usual organelles and prominent nuclei.
  28. Where do leukocytes typically function in the body?
    They function outside the bloodtream in the loose CTs where infections occur.
  29. This process is how leukocytes leave the capillaries by actively squeezing between the endothelial cells.
  30. Leukocytes are made and stored here.
    Bone marrow
  31. A patient who has a leukocyte count exceeding 11,000 per cubic mm showing infetion or inflammation, is said to have this.
  32. What are the 2 main group types of leukocytes?
    • Granulocytes
    • Agranulocytes
  33. What are the 3 types of granulocytes?
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  34. Along with phagocytes, this engulfs and digest foreign cells or molecules
  35. What are the 2 types of argranulocytes?
    • Lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  36. T or F: agranulocytes contain many obvious granules
    False: they lack granules, but granulocytes contains many obvious ones.
  37. These two are the most abundant types of leukocytes
    Neutrophils and lymphocytes
  38. This is the least abundant type of leukocytes
  39. From the most abundant to least, what does this mnemonic stand for: NLMEB - Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    • Neutrophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  40. What is the function of neutrophils and how does it achieve it?
    It destroys bacteria by containing enzymes that specifically destroy the cell walls of bacteria.
  41. This is he first line of defense in an inflammatory response by releasing bacteria destroying enzymes into the infected tissue.
  42. How is Pus created?
    A prolonged and severe inflammation can create pus, whih is composed of dead neutrophils and other leukocytes, plus tissue debris and dead bacteria.
  43. These are rare leukocytes and account for 1% to 4% of all leukocytes
  44. The granules of this leukocyte contains digestive enzymes that function during allergic reactions and parasitic infections.
  45. How do eosinophils play a role in ending an allergic reaction?
    They phagocytize allergens after the allergens are bound to antibodies. They then release enzymes that degrade histamine.
  46. What is the main function of Basophils?
    They contain granules that release histamine and other molecules during allergic responses and parasitic infections.
  47. This leukocyte is the most important and is mostly embeded in lymphoid CTs, where they play a crucial role in immunity.
  48. This is a molecule that induces a response from a lymphocytes
  49. What are the two main classes of lymphocytes?
    • T cells
    • B cells
  50. T or F: B cells attack foreign bodies directly and T cells produce antibodies.
    False: T-cells attack foreign cells directly, while B-cells produce antibodies.
  51. This is the largest leukocyte and transform into macrophages.
  52. Platelets are formed by breaking off of larger cells called what?
  53. What is responsible for plugging up small tears in the walls of blood vessels to limit bleeding?
  54. This process is the sequence of chemical reactions in blood plasma that ultimately generates a network of tough fibrin strands among the accumulated platelets in blood vessels.
  55. These are immature erythrocytes that make up 1-2% of all circulating erythrocytes.
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Book: Chp. 18 Blood
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