Module III Unit A

  1. What is stress?
    Condition where human responds to changes from its normal balanced state

    It is perceived as a challenge, threat, or danger
  2. What is a stressor?
    • Anything that is perceived as threatening
    • Can be Internal or External
    • Are neither + or -
    • BUT have +/- effects on the individual
  3. What are examples of internal & external stressors?
    • Internal
    • Illness
    • Hormonal Changes
    • Fear

    • External
    • Noise
    • Cold Temperature
  4. Adaptation
    Changes that result from response to a stressor
  5. Local Adaptation Syndrome (LAS)

    What are the 2 types
    Localized response to stress involving a specific body part

    • Type #1 - CNS responds to Pain
    • Rapid & automatic to prevent injury
    • Need to be functioning neurologically
    • Example: Touching hot stove

    • Type #2 - Inflammatory Response
    • Local response to injury or infection
    • Prevents spread
    • Promotes healing
    • Example
    • Cutting finger (pain, swelling, heat, redness)
  6. General Adaption Syndrome (GAS)
    • General response to stress
    • Three states (alarm, resistance, exhastion)

    See Figure 42-2
  7. When coping & defense mechanisms no longer effective

    High levels of anxiety, disorganized behavior
  8. Most common response to stress
    Considered a signal warning of danger

    Described as a feeling of uneasiness, discomfort, dead, apprehension
  9. What are the 4 Levels of Anxiety?
    • Mild
    • Increasing alertness & perceptual fields
    • Only level considered positive

    • Moderate
    • Increased muscle tension
    • Butterflies in stomach feeling
    • Slight increases in respiration & pulse

    • Severe
    • Extreme fear
    • Emotional distress affecting day to day life
    • Impairing of learning
    • Verbal communication problems
    • Tachycardia, hyperventilation

    • Panic
    • Loss of control in dread & terror
    • Lack of rational thought
    • Chest pain, chest pressure, choking feeling
    • Poor motor control
  10. Behaviors used to decrease stress & anxiety
    Coping Mechanisms
  11. What are the 2 categories of coping mechanisms?
    Task Oriented Reactions

    Defense Mechanisms
  12. What are the 3 types of task oriented reactions (involving coping mechanisms)
    • Attacking
    • Attempt to overcome obstable
    • Can be constructive (assertive problem solving)
    • Can be destructive (aggression & hostility)

    • Withdrawl
    • Physical or emotional withdrawal from threat
    • Admitting defeat, apathy, guilt, isolation

    • Compromise
    • Substitution or negotiations of one's goals
    • Most constructive of the three
  13. Defense Mechanisms are
    A coping mechanism

    • Unconscious reaction to stressor to protect self-esteem
    • Usually for mild to moderate anxiety
  14. What is Developmental Stress?

    List some examples
    Stress that occurs as person progresses thru the normal stages of life

    Each age has certain tasks to achieve that cause stress

    • Infant learning to trust others
    • Toddler potty training
    • Young adult developing independence
    • Middle-Age adult accepting physical signs of aging
  15. What is Situational Stress?

    List some examples
    Stress that is not predictable as one progresses thru life

    • Examples
    • Illness, injury
    • divorce
    • Loss (home, loved ones, relationship)
    • Starting a new job
    • Role changes in life
  16. Compensation (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Overcome a weakness by overdoing a strength

    Bad student who excels at sports, so plays lots of sports
  17. Denial (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Refusing to acknowledge a condition that is disturbing

    Woman who finds lump on her breast but will not week medical treatment
  18. Displacement (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Displacement of emotion from one to another

    Employee angry at boss, comes home and kicks the dog
  19. Introjection (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Incorpating the values or qualities of another person into his/her own ego structure

    Important for formation of conscience during childhood

    Older sibling telling younger sibling not to talk to strangers is expressing the parents values upon the younger sibling
  20. Projection (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Attributing one's thoughts or impulses on to someone else

    A person who is denying sexualo feelings for a coworker accuses that coworker of sexual harassment
  21. Rationalization (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Trying to give a logical explanation for questionable behavior

    aka Behavior Justification

    Patient forgets to keep doctor's appointment says "if I didn't have to wait 3 months to get an appointment, I wouldn't have forgotten"
  22. Reaction Formation (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Developing behavior patterns that are the opposite to what he or she would really do

    Married woman is attracted to her husband's best friend but acts rudely to him
  23. Regression (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Returning to an earlier method of behaving

    Children will regress to soiling self or demanding a bottle when ill
  24. Repression (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Excluding anxiety producing event from conscious awareness

    Father does not remember shaking his crying baby
  25. Sublimation (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    Substituting socially acceptable goal for one that is socially not

    Someone who is aggressive & violent becomes a star football player
  26. Undoing (Coping Mechanism)
    A defense mechanism

    • An act / communication used to negate a previous one
    • Commonly seen in domestic abuse

    Physically abusive husband will buy his wife flowers the following day
Card Set
Module III Unit A
Stress on the Human Body