Analysis of Dev. Final Exam Review- Comp Exam Study guide.txt

  1. TGF-beta pathway Roles
    important for embryonic patterning, key roles in embryonic stem cell self-renewal, gastrulation, differentiation, organ morphogenesis.
  2. What is BMP
    • subfamily of TGF-beta pathway.
    • Required for NEURAL CREST signaling
    • Regulated by SNW1: this act to allow for NEURAL crest formation
    • knockdown of SNW1 inhibits neural crest formation
  3. Role of FGF signaling
    • Works via RTK pathway
    • Responsible for limb bud initiation and outgrowth
  4. Shh
    • Responsible for limb bud FORMATION
    • Aids in patterning at AER by production of FGFs
  5. Glomus cell markers
    • BrdU
    • Th-T is also found in glomus cells
  6. Neural Pruning
  7. What is responsible for neural pruning
    CASPASE activity: aids in dendrite removal (DRONC is the initiator caspase)
  8. Epigenetics
    • Changes in genetic REGULATION without a change in the DNA sequence
    • Changes due to METHYLATION of promoter region, and HISTONE MODIFICATION
  9. Role of REST
    • Marker for embryonic stem cells (ES) REGULATES transition from pluripotent to NEURAL stem/progenitor cells and from progenitor cells to MATURE Neurons
    • REPRESSES NEURAL gene activity, until needed: then Dissociates from RE1 site in order to ACTIVATE neural genes
    • *REST is Gone during RA treatment and differntiation into neurons
  10. Neuronal Marker and RA
    • Neural marker TuJ1: expressed in NEURONs
    • Retinoic acid: Aids in transition to promote differentiation into NEURONS
  11. Pluripotency
    • the ability of stem cells to differentiate into any of the three germ layers:
    • - Endoderm (stomach lining, lungs)
    • - ectoderm (epidermis and nervous system)
    • - mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood, etc)
  12. How would you determine if cells are pluripotent?
    • Use RT-PCR for specific genes involved in induction of pluripotentcy: Sox2, Oct3/4 (TFs)
    • If when injected (retrovirally) and looked at a microarray..and look for similarities to embryonic stem cell (ES cells), which they are PLURIPOTENT
    • Also use immunohistochemistry to look at specific markers for cell lineages
  13. Comparing pluripotent cells to stem cells using what experimental approaches
    • RT-PCR to determine presence (or absense) of specific genes,
    • Similarly with DNA microarrays
    • CHIP assays ??????Explain
    • Global gene expression analysis: visualized using scatter plot, with regions closely resembling each other on or within the two linear slope lines
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Analysis of Dev. Final Exam Review- Comp Exam Study guide.txt
Analysis of Dev. Final Exam Review- Comp Exam Study guide