Digestive Processes

  1. What is the purpose of the reticular groove in ruminants?
    allows milk to skip the rumen in younger animals
  2. What makes up the foregut in ruminants?
    • rumen
    • omasum
    • reticulum
  3. What is the purpose of the rumen?
    large fermentation vat
  4. What are the main by-products of cellulose?
    volatile fatty acids
  5. Where are nutrients absorbed in ruminants?
    in rumen walls & into the blood stream
  6. How often do ruminants ruminate food?
    • about 8 hours per day
    • usually lay down
  7. What is the ruminant esophagus made up of?
    striated muscles due to regurgitation
  8. What is cellulose content broken down into in the rumen?
    • volatile fatty acids
    • vitamin K and B-complex
    • microbial protein
  9. What volatile fatty acids are produced from microbes?
    • acetate
    • propionate
    • butyrate
  10. What is the purpose of the capillary system around the rumen?
    absorb nutrients into bloodstream
  11. What is the purpose of the reticulum?
    • move ingested feed into the rumen or omasum
    • stimulates regurgitation of ingesta
  12. What does proprionate do?
    makes glucose for ruminants in the liver
  13. What is the purpose of the omasum?
    • reduces feed particle size before moving it into the abomasum
    • removes liquid from the food
  14. What is the purpose of the abomasum?
    • secretes digestive juices to finish breaking down the feed
    • glandular portion of the ruminant digestive system
  15. What is the true stomach in ruminants?
  16. What are ruminant intestines made up of?
    glands that secrete enzymes and HCL
  17. What is the importance of bile in non-ruminants?
    instrumental in fatty acid absorption in the small intestine
  18. What organ secretes hormones to aid in non-ruminant digestion?
  19. What are the 3 sections of the non-ruminant small intestine?
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ilium
  20. lipase is secreted by:
    the liver
  21. Where are bile salts found?
    • secreted by the liver
    • stored in the gall bladder
  22. What is the purpose of the stomach?
    primary glandular portion that breaks down food
  23. What are the parts of the large intestine?
    • large colon
    • small colon
  24. What occurs in the non-ruminant stomach?
    • start of protein digestion
    • minor microbial fermentation
    • quick rate of passage (15-25 minutes)
  25. What occurs in the small intestine of non-ruminants?
    • enzymatic digestion
    • primary site of nutrient absorption
    • (60-90 minute rate of passage, depending on feed)
  26. the pancreas releases:
    pepsin (breaks down proteins)
  27. amylase breaks down:
  28. the liver (gall bladder) releases:
    lipase (breaks down fats/lipids needed for absorption)
  29. What is the exocrine function of the pancreas in non-ruminants?
    • secretes insulin (feeding) and glucagon (fasting)
    • regulates blood sugar
  30. What is the endocrine function of the pancreas in non-ruminants?
    secretes enzymes and mucous
  31. What does protase do?
    breaks down proteins into amino acids
  32. What stimulates the activation of the pancreas in non-ruminants?
  33. What is the purpose of the cecum?
    • fermentation vat
    • similar to rumen
    • high microbe population
    • break down cellulose of plants
  34. What do microbes produce?
    • Volatile fatty acids (methane)
    • water-soluble vitamins (K & B)
  35. What is broken down by microbial fermentation?
    • mostly fiber
    • excess starch that hasn't been absorbed
    • excess protein
  36. What is the purpose of the large colon?
    • absorption of volatile fatty acids and B-vitamins
    • primary water reabsorption
  37. What is the purpose of the small colon?
    • secondary water reabsorption
    • electrolyte absorption
    • development of manure/feces
  38. What is digestive motility?
    how things move down the digestive system
  39. What drives digestive motility?
    the parasympathetic portion of the ANS
  40. How is food moved down the digestive tract?
    • cranial side contracts
    • caudal side relaxes
    • mixing of the bolus occurs at this time
Card Set
Digestive Processes
animal anatomy