Histo- Bones.txt

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  1. Bone is primarily _____________, which has two components, which are.....
    extracellular matrix; organic component and inorganic component (can't ID on histo slide)
  2. Mesenchymal cells that synthesize osteoid and mediate its mineralization; line bone surfaces.
  3. When osteoblasts become trapped in bone, they become __________.
  4. Mesenchymal cells which represent largely inactive osteoblasts trapped within formed bone; may assist in nutrition of bone.
  5. Mesenchymal cells that are phagocytic cell which are capable of eroding bone; important in constant turnover of bone.
  6. Osteocytes reside in ___________.
  7. As osteoid is laid down, osteoblasts become trapped in _________ as ___________, and their fine cytoplasmic processes are contained within ___________.
    lacunas; osteocytes; canaliculi
  8. During Phase 1 of osteoblast secretory activity, the ___________ is formed through synthesis and secretion of ___________.
    osteoid seam; organic materials
  9. Phase 2 of osteoblast secretory activity is the __________ of the ___________.
    mineralization; osteoid seam
  10. During Phase 2 of osteoblast activity, __________ from the osteoblast Golgi is released in vesicles; calcium is pumped into the vesicles, causing crystals to _________, which causes the ___________. The crystals deposit and progress to _________.
    hydroxyapetite; precipitate; vesicle to burst; diffuse mineralization
  11. Haphazard deposition of osteoid during period of rapid growth leads to temporary ________.
    woven bone
  12. Compact collagen fiber arrangement in which all collagen fibers go in the same direction.
    lamellar bone (ALL normal bone in adults)
  13. Two macroscopic structures of bone.
    compact bone and trabecular (cancellous) bone
  14. Compact bone is located at areas where _______________________, such as ________________.
    densely packed bone mass is needed; cortices of long bones
  15. Trabecular (cancellous) bone is in the ____________ of bones and provides ______________.
    center of bones (surrounded by compact bone); strength in all directions with minimal mass
  16. __________ acts as initiator of bone deposition.
  17. What are the 2 layers of periosteum?
    fibrous layer (with vessels and nerves), osteogenic (cambium) layer
  18. When periosteum is quiescent, osteoprogenitor cells are _________; when new bone is actively being formed, osteoprogenitors ________ and become ________.
    flat and lie on the periosteal surface; proliferate and grow; osteoblasts
  19. Surface on the inside of the bone.
  20. Multi-nucleated, large, macrophage-derived cells; primarily responsible for the removal of mineralized bone.
  21. _________ binds to RANK and activates it on the surface of an ________, causing it to ____________. Then, the __________ moves away so the _________ can bind and remove mineralized bone.
    RANK ligand; osteoblast; resorb unmineralized lamina limitans; osteoblast; osteoclast
  22. Line of unmineralized osteoid; matrix right at the surface.
    laminal limitans
  23. Osteoclasts function through the secretion of _________.
    carbonic anhydrase
  24. Central channels in bone that contain nerves, vessels, and osteogenic cells.
    Haversian canals
  25. Canals that go b/w Haversian canals, allowing the nerves and vessels to communicate with each other and with the periosteum and endosteum.
    Volkmann's canals
  26. Concentric lamellae that run up and down the bones with the Haversian canals form ___________.
    Haversian systems (osteons)
  27. Primary osteons form at the ________ surface when...; this becomes lined with _______, which lay down ________.
    periosteal; osteoclastic tunneling allows neurovascular bundles to grow into the bone; osteoblasts; concentric lamellae of bone
  28. On the inner surface of the cortical bone, osteoclasts are at the leading edge of the __________, and _________ follow to lay down bone.
    cutting cone; osteoblasts
  29. Bony matrix between osteons.
    interstitial bone
  30. Dark lines on a histo preparation that represent areas where bone has been taken away or built upon.
    cement lines
  31. Type of cement line that is indicative of an osteoclast that was followed by osteoblasts building new bone.
    reversal lines (very curvy, squiggly)
  32. Type of cement line where osteoblasts were building bone, they stopped, and then they restarted sequentially.
    smooth lines (very smooth, uniform)
  33. What are the 2 types of bone ossification involved in growth?
    membranous, endochondral
  34. Modeling that involves formation of bone via osteoblasts.
  35. Modeling that involves resorption by osteoclasts.
  36. What are 4 ways trabeculae align along lines of stress during bone modeling?
    streaming potentials in canaliculi, stretch of osteoblasts, piezoelectric forces (deformation of collagen crystal lattice), compression/tension on nerves and vessels
  37. Cancellous (trabecular) bone is remodeled by...
    basic structural unit (RANK ligand, osteoclasts, osteoblasts)
  38. Compact bone is remodeled by...
    osteons (cutting cone followed by osteoblasts)
  39. Describe the sequence of 6 events that takes place during bone remodeling.
    • 1. quiecence- bone lined by a layer of osteoblasts resting.
    • 2. activation- RANK ligand binds to osteoblasts; osteoblasts remove top layer then leave.
    • 3. resorption- osteoclasts resorb bone.
    • 4. reversal- osteoblasts return and cover bone.
    • 5. formation- reform area with new bone.
    • 6. quiescence- Bone lined by osteoblasts resting.
  40. Growth due to a widening process.
    interstitial growth
  41. Growth of bone that involves a lengthening process.
    appositional growth
  42. Interstitial growth only occurs in __________.
  43. Appositional growth occurs in the ___________ of _________ and _________.
    perichondrium; bone; cartilage
  44. Deposition of bone matrix by osteoblasts in the periosteum interstitial growth.
    membranous ossification
  45. Membranous ossification (interstitial growth) occurs in...
    sides (thickening) of long bones, on flat bones, diaphyseal corrtices
  46. Type of bone development which lengthens bone as a cartilage model is replaced by bone.
    endochondral ossification
  47. Structure at the end of the bone where cartilage is located as bone is growing.
  48. What are the 6 zones of growing bone?
    zone of reverse cartilage, zone of proliferation, zone of hypertrophy, zone of calcification, primary spongiosa, secondary spongiosa
  49. Zone where the cartilage cells stop multiplying/proliferating and start simply becoming larger.
    Zone of hypertrophy
  50. What are the 3 areas within the zone of calcification?
    calcification of mineral matrix, death of chondrocytes, vascular ingrowth bringing osteogenic cells that deposit bone on mineralized cartilage
  51. Where is the physis proper with respect to the articular epiphyseal surface?
    the physis proper (metaphyseal phyis) is within the trabecular bone; the epiphyseal physis is at the end of the bone (articular surface)
  52. After endochondral ossification is complete and the bone stop lengthening, the area where the matrix turns into bone and there s an abrupt transition between articular cartilage to the bone itself.
    subchondral plate
  53. Where are hyaline cartilages found?
    articular surfaces, physes
  54. Where are fibrocartilages found?
    menisci, annulus fibrosus
  55. Where is elastic cartilage found?
    ears, nose
  56. Cells that produce and maintain cartilaginous matrix.
  57. The chondroid matrix i mainly _____________ and ____________.
    type II collagen, proteoglycans
  58. Articular cartilage is ___________ and nourished by ___________.
    avascular; synovial fluid
  59. What are the 3 functions of articular cartilage?
    support/ distribute forces, stabilize/guide joint motion, contribute to joint lubrication
  60. Polymers of aggregating macromolecules, glycosaminoglycan side chains, highly hydrophilic components of articular cartilage.
  61. Area where cartilage is transitioning to bone in a closed physis.
    tide mark
  62. 6 zones of cartilage calcifying to bone.
    tangential zone, transitional zone, radial zone, tide mark, zone of calcified cartilage, subchondral bone
  63. How is cartilage widened?
    circumferential growth from chondroblasts in perichondral ring
  64. How does lengthening of cartilage occur?
    longitudinal growth from within cartilage
  65. What are the 3 layers of a joint capsule of a synovial joint?
    fibrous layer, subsynovium, synovium
  66. Articulation of synovial joint is facilitated by... (2)
    lubricin (non load bearing), weeping lubrication (heavy load bearing)
  67. Type of synovial cell that is macrophage-like and phagocytic; possibly blood monocyte derive.
    type A synoviocytes
  68. Type of synovial cell that is locally derived and fibroblast-like, producing hyaluronate.
    Type B synoviocytes
  69. Tendons and ligaments are __________ and made of _________.
    hypocellular; Type 1 dense collagen
  70. Tendons and ligaments insert into bones via _________.
    Sharpey's fibers
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Histo- Bones.txt
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