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  1. The flow of energy in an ecosystem
    decreases by 90% at each trophic leve
  2. Which of the following initiated the law of unintended consequences at Lake Victoria in Africa?
    introducing the Nile perch
  3. Urban landfills use procedures that
    decrease the decomposition rate for newspapers.
  4. A national recycling program is inhibited by
    a. lack of a market for some recycled products. b. the fact that each type of trash requires a unique chemical process to be recycled. c. the sheer volume of trash needing to be processed. d. America's "use it and lose it" attitude.
  5. Which term refers to the particular way an organism obtains energy?
    ecological niche
  6. Which statement about an ecosystem is correct?
    Matter is recycled by an ecosystem.
  7. According to the equilibrium hypothesis, introducing a new species to an isolated ecosystem will
    cause another species to go extinct.
  8. Research by Daniel Simberloff and E.O. Wilson supported the theory of island biogeography when, at the end of the experiment,
    the island biota were replaced by similar but different species of animals.
  9. The amount of solid waste produced by an average American each year equals
    the weight of two large dump trucks.
  10. The value of the ozone layer to Earth's citizens is
    protection from ultraviolet rays.
  11. What were the principles of the Kyoto accords?
    decrease in CO2 emissions on a global scale
  12. Which are products of burning fossil fuels in the atmosphere?
    a. carbon dioxide and water  b. nitrogen oxides and sulfur compounds  c. water vapor and sulfur compounds  d. carbon dioxide and NOx
  13. How far above the Earth would we find the highest concentration of "good" ozone?
    20 miles
  14. The creation of NOx requires nitrogen, oxygen, and
  15. How are CFCs dangerous to the environment?
    breaking O3 to create O2
  16. What were the results of the Montreal treaty of 1986?
    Industrial nations would decrease, then stop their production of CFCs
  17. Acid rain is known to cause problems by
    destroying statues and limestone buildings
  18. An ecosystem can be as large as the Earth and as small as an aquarium.
  19. A list of ecosystem components would include the abiotic as well as the biotic parts.
  20. The ozone levels must be sampled directly from aircraft flying into the region under study.
  21. Chlorofluorocarbons replaced Freon as a coolant in air conditioners and refrigerators.
  22. The Everglades Restoration Plan will change the flow of water in Florida.
  23. Since introducing Nile perch to Lake Victoria, the shore tree density has decreased.
  24. The United States did not sign the international Kyoto accord.
  25. Scientists are unable to predict the consequences of the greenhouse effect with certainty.
  26. The treaty that came out of the 1986 international environmental conference in Montreal called for an immediate global ban on chlorofluorocarbons
  27. Carbon dioxide causes the rainfall to be naturally acidic.
  28. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth's average temperature would be -20°C
  29. Global climate models are not reliable for long-term predictions because the resolution of the data cells is too coarse.
  30. How are scientists determining atmospheric ozone levels?
    a. measuring spectral lines from satellites  b. collecting samples with specially outfitted airplanes  c. analyzing data collected in ground-based labs
  31. Which example would best demonstrate the "law of unintended consequences"?
    building levees on the Mississippi River
  32. Which of these groups are listed as first, second, and third trophic level order, respectively?
    grass, deer, mountain lion
  33. Why is any effort to control the greenhouse effect so difficult?
    a. The global economy depends on fossil fuels.  b. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon necessary to keep the average temperature on Earth above freezing.  c. The global climate models are not yet dependable enough to determine energy policy.  d. There is no reliable substitute energy source available to the average citizen to replace fossil fuels on a global scale.
  34. Why do scientists believe that global warming is occurring?
    a. 15 of 20 years since 1980 were warmer than normal   b. sea level is rising   c. glaciers are melting  d. 1998 was the warmest year on record
  35. What do scientists think will happen if the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are doubled?
    a. Earth's average temperature will increase 2°C to 6°C.   b. The oceans will take up the extra carbon dioxide.   c. The plants will increase in biomass productivity.   d. The Earth will become cloudier.
  36. What are some ideas proposed to decrease global warming?
    a. limit the burning of fossil fuels   b. pass laws with strict auto emissions limits  c. nothing; global warming is a natural process  d. plant trees to take in extra CO2
  37. The total warming in the northern hemisphere since the last ice age is 5°F
  38. Earth's atmosphere is transparent to visible light and ultraviolet but opaque to infrared wavelengths.
  39. Life moved to land on Earth only after the greenhouse shield formed, several hundred million years ago.
  40. Carbon dioxide protects the Earth's surface from harmful radiation.
  41. The ozone hole was first detected over Antarctica because of a chlorine research project located there.
  42. It takes more than 100 years for an economy to change its industrial and municipal fuel choices.
  43. If the annual temperature of Washington DC warms two degrees Celsius, its climate would be most like
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