AP Psych: Memory/Learning

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  1. Memory
    Persistence of learning over time through encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
  2. 3 Steps of how Memory works
    • Encoding
    • Storage
    • Retrieval
  3. What are the 2 different types of Encoding?
    • Automatic Processing
    • Effortful Processing
  4. Encoding
    Processing of information into the memory system
  5. Storage
    Process of retaining (keeping) encoded information over time
  6. Retrieval
    Process of getting information out of the memory storage
  7. Parallel Processing
    Processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously 

    ex: In the lunch room you simultaneously process information between all the voices you hear, people you see, and the smell of food.
  8. What type of memory does Deja Vu occur in?
    Sensory Memory
  9. Sensory Memory
    Immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
  10. What helps Short-Term Memories last longer?
    • Rehearsal
    • Chunking
    • Mnemonic Devices
  11. Short-Term Memory
    Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten

    Only lasts 10-20 seconds

    ex: Dialing a phone number
  12. Who created the Memory-Forming Process?
    Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
  13. What are the 3 steps of the Memory-Forming Process?
    • Sensory Memory
    • Short-Term Memory
    • Long-Term Memory
  14. 3 Different types of Long-Term Memory?
    • Episodic
    • Semantic
    • Procedural
  15. Semantic Memory
    Long-term memory of facts
  16. Procedural Memory
    Long-term memories of how to do something step by step
  17. Episodic Memory
    Long-term memory of specific events
  18. Long-Term Memory
    Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

    It includes Knowledge, Skills, and experiences
  19. Working Memory
    Newer understanding of short-term memory

    • Focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information
    • and also of information retrieved from long-term memory
  20. Explicit Memory
    Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare

    Is retrieved from the Long-Term Memory

    AKA: Declarative Memory

    is created by Effortful Processing

    ex: Latent Learning
  21. What are the 3 Types of Effortful Processes?
    • Rehearsal
    • Spacing Effect
    • Testing Effect
  22. Effortful Processing
    • Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
    • Usually happens first before Automatic Processing
  23. Automatic Processing
    • Encoding of unconscious incidental information
    • Happens from conditioning
  24. Implicit Memory
    Retention independent of unconscious recollection

    AKA: non-declarative memory

    is created by Automatic Processing

    ex: Classical Conditioning
  25. Iconic Memory
    Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli

    Lasts no more than a few tenths of a second
  26. Echoic Memory
    Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

    Lasts about 3-4 seconds
  27. Chunking
    • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units
    • Is done automatically
  28. Spacing Effect
    Distributed study or practice to get better long-term retention

    ex: Studying 10 minutes a night
  29. Testing Effect:
    Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information

    AKA: Retrieval Practice Effect or Test-Enhanced Learning
  30. Shallow Processing
    Encoding on a very basic level based on the structure or appearance of words
  31. Deep Processing
    Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words

    Tends to create the best retention
  32. Flashbulb Memory
    Clear memory of an emotionally significant event
  33. Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
    Increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation

    Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
  34. Recognition
    Measure of memory in which the person only needs to identify previously learned subjects

    ex: Multiple-Choice Tests
  35. Recall
    Measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier

    ex: Fill-in-the-blank tests
  36. Relearning
    Measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material over again
  37. Priming
    • Preparing yourself to learn
    • Is often unconsciously done

    ex: Warm Ups
  38. Mood-Congruent Memory
    Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
  39. Serial Position Effect
    Remembering the beginning and end parts of a list better than the middle parts
  40. Anterograde Amnesia
    Inability to form new memories
  41. Retrograde Amnesia
    Inability to retrieve information from one's past
  42. Proactive Interference
    Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
  43. Retroactive Interference
    Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
  44. Repression
    In  Freud's psychoanalytic theory

    Basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
  45. Framing
    Uses specific keywords to suggest the answer they want you to give

    • ex: How fast were the cars going when they "touched"
    • How fast were the cars going when they "smashed"
  46. Misinformation Effect
    Incorporating misleading information from someone else into one's memory of an event

    Happens because of Framing
  47. Algorithms
    Step by Step procedure in solving a problem
  48. Availability Heuristic
    What is most easily brought to mind because of everyday experiences

    ex: Thinking someone is cute because you see them everyday
  49. Representativeness Heuristic
    What is stuck in a person's head due to a past experience

    ex: Thinking younger people are more likely to commit suicide due to a friend committing suicide when you were young
  50. 3 Stages of Language Creation
    • Babbling Stage
    • One Word Stage
    • Two Word Stage
  51. Aphasia
    Language impairment from damage to the left hemisphere

    Can also occur in Residual Schizophrenia because they remove themselves from society for so long, their language disappears
Card Set
AP Psych: Memory/Learning
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