Science Exam 2014 (atomic science, metallurgy, acids and bases)

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  1. What is a physical change and it's signs?
    A physical change is not a permanent change. You can easily get back the material you started with. 

    signs - The substance changes state (liquid to gas or solid to liquid etc),  easily reversed
  2. What is a chemical change and it's signs?
    A chemical change occurs when a new substance is formed. We usually look to see if two or more signs have occured to say that a chemical change has happened and a new substance is formed. 

    Signs - irreversible, colour change, different smell, heat given out or absorbed
  3. What are the 3 main particles that atoms are made out of and their relative charge?
    • Proton: +1
    • Neutron: 0 
    • Electron: -1
  4. What does P.I.N stand for?
    PROTONS and NEUTRONS in the nucleus
  5. Define Atom
    Tiny particles that make up everything in the world
  6. How do you work work out the number of neutrons?
    By subtracting the atomic mass by the mass number. (biggest number by the smallest)
  7. Image Upload 1 use this to complete a shell diagram
    Image Upload 2EC = 2,1 And if this was in a chemical reaction it would be easy to take away 1 electron to have a full shell.
  8. What is a compound? (atomic science)
    • When atoms of two or more elements are chemically bonded together. 
    • e.g.Image Upload 3
    • (more than 1 capital letter is a compound)
  9. What is a mixture? (atomic science)
    When two or more substances are mixed together, but not chemically combined. E.g air is a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  10. define ion
    an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
  11. Reactant + _____ = ______
    • Reactant + Reactant  = Product 
  12. What is an element
    An element is a substance consisting of atoms which all have the same number of protons - i.e. the same atomic number.
  13. What is an acid?
    a sour substance that you can sometimes eat or drink. Strong acids can eat away things like skin, pain, wood, etc. (releases H+ ions)
  14. What is a base
    an acid opposite that will remove hydrogen (acid)  ions from a solution (Bases release OH- ions)
  15. What is the difference between a base and an alkali 
    A base will remove hydrogen ions from a solution. An alkali is a base that dissolves in water.
  16. the PH scale (universal indicator)
    Image Upload 4
  17. If a substance is strongly acidic what number and colour would it be on the PH scale
    0-3 and red
  18. If a substance was strongly basic what number and colour would it be on the PH scale?
    PH 13 and dark blue
  19. If a substance is neutral what colour and number would it be
    Ph 7 and green
  20. Explain neutralisation with examples (indigestion)
    Indigestion is caused by acid rising up into your oesophagus. Your stomach is protected from the acid because it produces a protective music to prevent the acid from getting to the cells of your stomach wall. However, the oesophagus does not produce any protective music so the acid burns the lining of your oesophagus. The pain can be quickly treated by using an indigestion (antacid)  tablet. These tablets are usually alkalis that neutralize the excess acid in your stomach and oesophagus
  21. Acid +  base --> Salt + water 

    3 examples with Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric, and nitric acid using sodium hydroxide
    Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide --> sodium Chloride + water 

    Sulfuric acid + Sodium hydroxide --> Sodium sulfate + water

    Nitric acid + Sodium hydroxide   --> sodium nitrate + water
  22. What does M.A.S.H stand for?
    Metals + Acids --> salt + hydrogen
  23. What is the short form for Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid
    • Hydrochloric: HCl
    • Sulfuric Acid: h2So4
    • Nitric Acid: HNO3

    *the numbers in bold been they use to down below*
  24. What is the short for chlorides, sulfates and nitrates?
    • Chloride: Cl
    • Sulfate: So4
    • Nitrate: No3

    *numbers in bold been they should be down below
  25. Write down the short form equation for:
    Hydrochloric acid+ Sodium hydroxide -->Sodium Chloride + water
    HCl + NaOH --> NACl + h20
  26. Write down the short form equation for:
    Sulfirc acid + potassium hydroxide --> Pottasium sulfate + water
    H2SO4 + 2KOH  --> K2SO4 + h20
  27. What is an alloy
    An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements one or more of which is a metal.
  28. Metal + oxygen ----> Metal ___
    Metal + oxygen ---> metal oxide
  29. What is rust and how is it preserved?
    • Metals rust when they are exposed to the environment (oxygen)
    • To prevent corrosion you can create a barrier by using vaseline, nail polish or even paint. You can even wrap something like nickel or copper around the iron to prevent it from corrosion
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Science Exam 2014 (atomic science, metallurgy, acids and bases)
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