Comp. Ch. 2 Test

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  1. bit
    is a single circuit that either contains a current or does not
  2. binary digits
    used as a means of representing the off/on state of a computer switch, or bit.
  3. binary numbers
    a series of circuits whose patterns of off/on current is converted into strings of binary digits called binary numbers
  4. byte
    is a group of eight bits and is the method of representing one character of data, such as the essential numbers (0-9)
  5. petabyte
    1 quadrillion
  6. exabyte
    1 quintillion bytes
  7. zettabyte
    1 sextillion bytes
  8. yottabyte
    1 septillion bytes
  9. hexadecimal numbers (hex for short)
    A number system, referred to as base-16, that uses the numbers 0-9 and the letters A through F to represent a binary string in a shorter, more compact form
  10. floating point standard
    A notation standard, created by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and used to represent numbers with fractional parts. There is no fixed number of digits before or after the decimal point, so the computer can work with very large and very small numbers PHEWWW
  11. ASCII (The American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
    most widely used character code, which is used in minicomputers, personal computers, and computers that make information available over the internet. ASCII uses seven bits and thus represents 128 (2^7=128)
  12. Extended ASCII
    uses eight bits and allows 128 additional characters, like the fractions 1/2l and 1/4; and logical symbols such as ><, for a total of 256 (2^8= 256)
  13. system unit
    is a boxlike case that comes in a variety of shapes and sizes, and houses the computer's main hardware components.
  14. footprint
    amount of physical space used by a device
  15. tower case
    a system unit case designed to sit on the floor next to a desk
  16. minitower case
    A smaller version of the tower that has less internal room for components is called a minitower case
  17. form factor
    is a specification for how internal components, such as the motherboard, are mounted inside the system unit
  18. grounding bracelet
    is a bracelet that has a cord attached to a grounded object.
  19. cooling fan
    keeps the system unit cool
  20. internal speaker
    one of the components inside a computer's system unit, typical useful for emitting beeps and other low-fidelity sounds
  21. drive bays
    accommodates the computer's disk drives, such as the hard disk drive, CD or DVD drive, and portable drives
  22. expansion slots
    receptacles that accept additional circuit boards or expansion cards
  23. expansion cards/expansion boards/ adapter cards/ adapters
    contain the circuitry for peripherals that are not normally included as standard equipment
  24. motherboard
    is a large flat piece of plastic or fiberglass that contains thousands of electrical circuits etched onto the board's surface.
  25. integrated circuit (IC)/ chip
    carries an electric current and contains millions of transistors.
  26. Transistor
    is an electronic switch (or gate) that controls the flow of electrical signals through the circuit
  27. semiconductor
    special material that transistors are made out of in layers
  28. EBCDIC (pronounced "ebb-see-dic) Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
    Eight-bit code that IBM mainframe computers and some midrange systems use; ordered using a low-to-high sequence starting with punctuation, lowercase letters, uppercase letters, and then numbers.
  29. Unicode
    uses 16-bit  and can represent over 65,000 characters, and can symbolize all the world's written languages; the first 128 codes in the Unicode system represent the same characters in the ASCII system
  30. central processing unit (CPU) microprocessor or processor
    for short an integrated circuit chip is that is capable of processing electronic signals.
  31. embedded processors
    These processors are designed and programmed to perform only the tasks intended to be done by that device
  32. heat sink
    a heat dissipating component that drains heat from the chip
  33. instruction set
    a processor's list of instructions
  34. native application
    A program  that is compatible with a given processor and therefore capable of running on that processor
  35. processing or machine cycle
    A four-step process performed in the central processing unit (CPU) that involves the fetch, decode, execute, and store operations
  36. control unit
    under the direction of an embedded program, switches from one stage to the next and performs the action of that stage.
  37. arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
    The portion of the central processing unit that performs arithmetic operations, which return numeric values, and logical operations, which return a value of true or false.
  38. arithmetic operations
    One of two groups of operations performed by the arithmetic unit (ALU). The arithmetic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. An arithmetic operation returns to the value of the operation
  39. logical operations
    One of two groups of operations performs by the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). An example of logical operation is the comparison of data items to determine whether the first number is greater than the second Logical operations return a value of true or false
  40. registers
    are temporary storage areas located within the microprocessor.
  41. Instruction cycle
    fetch and decode
  42. execution cycle
    execute and store
  43. word size
    the maximum number of bits the CPU can process at once
  44. system clock
    is an electronic circuit that generates rapid pulses to synchronizes the computer's internal activities, including the movement from one stage of the machine cycle to another
  45. gigahertz
    billions of cycles per second
  46. clock speed
    The speed of the internal clock of a microprocessor that synchronizes and sets the pace of the computer's internal activities, including the movement from one stage of the machine cycle to another.
  47. superscalar architecture
    refers to the design of any CPU that can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle
  48. pipelining
    a technique that feeds a new instruction into the CPU at every step of the processing cycle so that four or more instructions are worked on simultanesouly
  49. data dependency
    if the CPU needs the results of a completed instruction to process the next one
  50. data bus
    is a set of parallel wires that acts as an electronic highway on which data travels between computer components
  51. word size
    the width of a CPU's data bus
  52. speculative execution
    the processor executes and temporarily stores the next instruction in case it proves useful
  53. branch prediction
    the processor tries to predict what will happen (with surprisingly high degree of accuracy).
  54. parallel processing
    a technique that uses more than one processor to execute a program
  55. multitasking
    a process by which the CPU gives the user the illusion of performing instructions from multiple programs at once when in reality the CPU is rapidly switching between the programs and instructions
  56. chipset
    which is a collection of chips that work together to provide the switching circuitry needed by the microprocessor to move data throughout the computer
  57. input/output (I/O) bus
    refers specifically to the pathway that extends beyond the microprocessor to communicate with input and output devices.
  58. PCI (peripheral component interconnect) bus
    a slower bus that connects devices like hard drives and sound cards to the faster microprocessor system bus
  59. memory
    refers to the chips, located on the motherboard or within the CPU, that retain instructions and data to be accessed by the CPU
  60. RAM
    volatile memory, which means it is not permanent and its contents are erased when the computer's power is switched off

    -Receive and hold program instructions and data while being used by the system

    -Provide those instructions and data to the CPU when needed

    -Hold the results of the CPU's processing until an instruction is received to transfer it to a printer or permanent storage device
  61. memory address/ direct access storage (IBM)
    (in binary form) enables the location to be found and the content within to be accessed directly
  62. memory modules or memory cards
    a small circuit board that holds several RAM chips and fits into special slots on the motherboard
  63. dual inline memory modules (DIMM)
    what most RAM are today; have 168-pin connector and a 64-bit data transfer rate
  64. single inline memory module (SIMM)
    used a 72-pin connector and a 32-bit data transfer rate
  65. memory footprint
    the amount of RAM the program uses while it operates
  66. virtual memory
    a term used to refer to a portion of the hard drive that the operating system treats as a portion of RAM when RAM is full
  67. cache memory
    is a small unit of ultrafast memory built into or near the processor  that stores frequently or recently accessed program instructions and data
  68. primary cach
    is a unit of 4KB to 16KB of ultrafast memory included in the microprocessor chip that runs at approximately 10 nanoseconds. Primary cache is the fastest memory
  69. secondary memory
    is a unit of up to 512KB of ultrafast memory that can be located within the microprocessor, but further from registers than lvl. 1 cache, or on a separate cache chip located on the motherboard
  70. nanosecond
    one-billionth of a second
  71. Level 3 cache
    is found on systems with newer microprocessors, like Intel's Xenon processor, that are located in some servers and workstations.
  72. ROM
    a type of nonvolatile memory in which instructions  are prerecorded and not erased when the system shut down
  73. BIOS (basic i/o system)
    the first code run when a system is powered on. It checks and initializes such devices as the keyboard, display screens and disk drives
  74. CMOS
    controls a variety of actions including starting the power-son self test and verifying that other components of the system are functioning correctly
  75. bootstrap Loader
    a program that locates and loads the operating system into RAM
  76. POST (power-on self test)
    a program that is run when the system is started. It checks the circuitry and RAM, marking any locations that are defective so that they do not get used
  77. PROM (Programmable read-only memory)
    can be written on only once, but requires a special writing device. It is used to hold startup programs that are bug free and are never meant to be changed.
  78. EPROM
    electrically programmable read-only memory is erasable PROM that can be reused many times.
  79. EEPROM
    electrical erasable programmable read-only memory that can be rewritten many times while the chip is on the computer
  80. Flash EPROM
    similar to EEPROM except that flash EPROMs are erased in blocks, whereas regular EEPROMs are erase one byte at a time.
  81. drive activity light
    indicates your hard drive is accessing data
  82. power-on light
    which indicates whether the power is on
  83. connector
    is a physical receptacle located on the system unit or on an expansion card that is visible on the outside of the unit
  84. thumbscrews
    small screws that are usually attached to the plug and and are used to connect the plug to the system unit or the expansion card extender to prevent an accidental disconnect
  85. USB ports (universal serial bus)
    can connect a variety of devices, including keyboards, mice, printers, and digital cameras, and were designed to replace older parallel and serial ports
  86. hot swapping
    is the ability to connect and disconnect devices without shutting down your computer
  87. plug-and-play (PnP)
    refers to a set of standards, jointly developed by the Intel Corporation and Microsoft, which enable a computer to automatically detect the brand, model, and characteristics of a device when you plug it in and configure the system accordingly
  88. usb hub
    a device that plugs into an existing USB port and contains four or more additional ports
  89. FireWire
    an interface Apple created and standardized as the IEEE 1394 High Performance Serial Bus specification
  90. 1394 port
    the name of FireWire on non-Apple systems
  91. video graphics array (VGA) connector
    a 15-pin male connector that works with standard monitor cables
  92. digital visual interface (DVI) port
    lets LCD monitors use digital signals
  93. onboard video
    video circuitry that is built into the motherboard on some computers
  94. ExpressCard
    is a credit card-sized adapter that fits into a designated  slot to provide expanded capabilities such as wireless communication, additional memory, multimedia, or security features
  95. legacy technology
    is an older technology, device, or application that is being phased out in favor of new advances in technology
  96. serial ports
    were one of the earliest types of ports and were often used dial-up modems to achieve two-way communication
  97. parallel ports
    were commonly used to connect a PC to a printer but have been replaced by USB ports and Ethernet ports
  98. PS/2
    were typically used for mice and keyboards, but were not interchangeable.
  99. SCSIs (pronounced scuzzy)
    small computer interface ports were a type of parallel interface that enabled users to connect  up to 15 SCSI-compatible  devices, such as printers, scanners, and digital cameras, in a daisy-chain series
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Comp. Ch. 2 Test
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