American History exam III

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  1. 3 things to consider with economic and developmental growth
    • Backward linkages-need to do now
    • forward linkages-future possibilities
    • unforeseen consequences
  2. the 7 I's factors aiding industrialization
    • inventions
    • innovations
    • immigration
    • investment
    • infrastructure(internal improvements)
    • "In the ground"
    • Inhumanity
  3. backward linkage needs for national economy of industrialization
    • what do we need to do now?
    • need land
    • need materials
    • need workers
  4. Inventions
    • cotton gin-Eli Whitney (1793)
    • steamboat-Robert Fulton
    • Mills-Samuel Slater
  5. B/F linkages & unforeseen consequences for cotton gin
    • FL: now easier to produce cotton due to 100 less people needed to remove seeds
    • increases cotton farms
    • BL: need materials, people to pick cotton
    • UC: increase of slavery-south all for it now
  6. B/F linkages & unforeseen consequences for steamboat
    • FL: can go back up Mississippi, increase transportation
    • BL: to build the boats=jobs
  7. B/F linkages & unforeseen consequences for Mills
    • *1st Mill developed in New England from Samuel Slater-memorized textile machinery from England
    • FL: workers, materials
    • BL: Power from waterfalls, labor, $$ from Northern Investors
  8. 3 Innovations
    • factory systems
    • interchangeable parts
    • Waltham system
  9. factory system
  10. putting all skills in one place
  11. interchangeable parts
    • specialist vs. craftsmen
    • one person for one specific part
    • FL: don't have to go to one craftsman if part breaks
  12. Waltham system
    • most advance machine=less skilled workers
    • FL: revolving system-no permanent factory class-girls prior to marriage
  13. overview of what the marshall court accomplishes from 1801-1835
    • *strengthens role of court(Judicial review)
    • *strengthens national government
    • -implied powers-elastic clause
    • -interstates clauses
    • *Sanctity of contract
  14. 4 major Marshall Court cases
    • * Marbury v. Madison
    • * Dartmouth College Case
    • * McCulloch v. Maryland
    • * Gibbons v. Ogden
  15. Marbury v. Madison
    • judicial reviews
    • -court decides if laws follow constitution
  16. Dartmouth College Case
    • Right of contract
    • -New Hampshire tried to change terms of contract with college
    • -court decides states may not change terms of contract
    • -ensures security of business agreements
    • -protect property rights
  17. McCulloch v. Maryland
    • Necessary & proper clause
    • Maryland put tax on non-state banks
    • -> tax for Bank of US
    • Marshall asks if congress has right to charter a bank
    • -court rules yes->necessary & proper clause
  18. Supremacy Clause from the McCulloch v. Maryland case
    • Supreme Law of Land
    • state laws cannot override national
    • takes away states power to tax due to potential abuse
    • *established power of federal government over states
    • promoted economic growth
  19. Gibsons v. Ogden
    • steamboat owners trying to monopoly river usage
    • nationally used
    • *Interstate commerce-states cannot control
    • *encourages national markets
  20. 4 points of the background of jacksonian democracy
    • Jackson as beneficiary, not initiator
    • Rise of "common man"
    • Jackson as war hero ("Old Hickory)
    • "Second party system"
  21. how is Jackson a beneficiary, not initiator
    • he doesn't start his reputation
    • gets credit for changing electro voting by state
  22. Rise of the "common man"
    • land requirement to vote changed
    • politicians start to campaign to poor white men
    • popular vote chooses electors
  23. "Secondary Party System"
    • Whigs v. Democrats(jacksonian)
    • State delegates chosen by people choose president
  24. Jackson's 3 campaign pieces
    • hero, disciplinary yet kind general
    • tough as old hickory
    • man of the people/protector of "common man"
  25. Jackson's bad propaganda
    • murderer, adulter
    • has a temper
    • builds grudges
  26. jacksonian democracy in practice (5)
    • campaigns appeal to "common man"
    • "spoils system"
    • conception of the presidency
    • conception of national government
    • opposition to "privilege"
  27. "Spoils system"
    • military reference "to victor belongs the spoils"
    • *removes & replaces political positions
    • Problem: lack of experience, consistancy
    • Jacksons rebuttal: doesn't make a difference because common man=common sense->easy job
  28. Jacksons conception of presidency
    • Tribune of the people
    • 1st president to be voted by people
    • Veto-was suppose to be a check of constitution
    • he used it as a personal agenda bc he's the voice of the people
  29. Jackson's National Government Conception
    • Supreme over states in certain areas good
    • doesn't like elastic
    • *absolute sovereignty within a limited sphere
  30. Jackson's opposition to "privilege"
    doesn't like corporation rights & powers over people
  31. 3 Areas for Jackson during presidency
    • Bank
    • Natives
    • Nullification
  32. Immigration
    • people drawn to pull factors:
    • prospect of abundant land, good wages, and economic opportunity, political and religious freedom
    • population growth stimulated economy
  33. Investment
    • Corportations
    • -only infrastructure type companies could receive state charter
    • -companies needed multiple investors
    • -"limited liability" everyone saw incorporation as a monopoly
    • -centered for the rich
    • freed America from need of foreign trade
    • -high profits and prestige of manufacturing
    • -cities grew=farming needs grew
  34. "In the ground"
    • rich farmlands in western areas-corn fed salves
    • Cotton
    • -sea island silky but susceptible to frost
    • -upland seedy-ruined cotton through roller
    • BL: land from Mississippi and Alabama, tennessee
    • FL: northern factories profited, sales to overseas increased econcomy
  35. infrastructure(internal improvements)
    • private and public investment in roads=tolls to use and maintain
    • steamboat production grew-decreased freight charges for the north-Nola became big and center for carnivals
    • canals
  36. Erie Canal
    • DeWitt Clinton persuaded legislature to fund
    • construction performed by Benjamin Wright, Canvass White, Jervis
    • camplain canal link to Hudson
    • made ny lots of $$$
  37. Jackson and the Cherokee nation
    Worcester v. Georgia
    • Cherokees try to live by US standards to avoid harrassment
    • Georgia decides they want their land
    • Cherokees sue Georgia->marshalls supreme court
    • law to limits Georgia
    • Jackson doesn't back=Seminole war->slaves
    • one group signed contract=
    • trail of tears to Oklahoma
  38. Jackson Nullification
    • Compormise Tariff-lowers tariff a little
    • SC-Ordinance of Nullification-so they don't have to pay except here US gets $$ from
    • SC thinks Jackson will have same rxn as with Cherokees
    • Nope-asks congress for permission to send militia
    • -congress:force bill, SC: nullify any other federal law
  39. why the vehemence?
    Nat Turner 1831 Rebellion
    • Nat: god said to free his people
    • ->killed about 60 white people
    • Panic about disloyal slaves
    • -masters confused, feel like all family
    • -fear like terrorists after 911
    • *blamed abolitionists: William Garrision's Liberator
    • * people want to be protected by state
  40. Election of 1840
    • William Harrison-WHigs picked him and used him as a puppet
    • tippeecanoe
    • Clay thinks he's going to be prime minister
    • Harrison dies 30 days later
    • VP Tyler-democrat-now president
  41. SEcond Great Awakening?
    what its in response to
    • Deism: some superior being too vague
    • Calvinism: reject predestination
    • going to hell too strict
    • New: possibility of salvation
  42. Changes in upstate NY that contributed to 2nd great awakening
    • Erie canal-upstate becoming more settled
    • increase in population from immigration
    • =mental dislocation & need for security
  43. 2 Utopian societies
    • Shakers
    • -Ann Lee
    • common property, sexes divided, celibacy, simple lifestyles
    • Oneida Community
    • -communal property and marriage
    • women are not property
  44. Mormons
    • John Smith
    • -angel, golden plates
    • 12 tribes from isreal came to US=holy land
    • strong communal ethics and sense of religious certainty
    • -society doesn't accept polygamy-chases them through states
  45. why did people join Mormons?
    • self-help community
    • help you up, you return favor
    • American-3rd testament
    • john smith was charasmatic
    • virtual self-government
  46. why did people oppose Mormons?
    • business competition
    • -self sufficient and sold products
    • john smith a prophet who receives messages all the time-inner light/equal
    • polygamy
    • fear of political power
    • jealous of success
  47. Mormons trek to utah
    • John smith arrested and murdered in Nauvoo
    • Group travels to get away to be safe and search for Zion->Utah, salt lake city
    • Thrive in isolation to now most powerful and successful utopia groups
  48. Religious Reforming
    • Samuel Gridely Howe helped the blind
    • Gallaudet helped the deaf
    • Prisons now penitentiary-time to think and reflect
    • This is different because predestination indicates if born defective god already hates you
  49. Temperance
    • Men drinking too much, spending family $$, beating family, committing crimes
    • Religious issue-Demon Rum causes you to be sinful
    • Maine Law-1851 prohibition law
  50. Abolition
    • Colonization movement to free slaves
    • -sends them back to Africa or to Canada
    • Garrison demands immediate emancipation bc its sinful and they should be treated equally
    • *people think he's crazy and terrorize
  51. Black Abolitionists
    • Gabriel, Vesey, Turner
    • David Walker's Appeal (1829)
    • Fredrick Douglas
    • -escaped slave, speaker, inadvertently converts curious people, split from garrison bc felt like he was being used like a side show
  52. Family changes
    • increased out of home employment-more urban societies bc of factories
    • -labor divides sexes-men outside-women@ home=decrease in family size
    • "Cult of True Womenhood" Domesticity
  53. Women's Rights
    • Roots in abolition movement-issues similar
    • Lucretia Mott
    • quakers big on this issue=inner light
  54. London Anti-Slavery Convention
    • didn't know what to do with American women representatives
    • put them behind a curtain so they could listen but not participate
  55. Seneca Falls Convention
    • Stanton, Mott, Douglas
    • Declaration of Sentiments-mimics Declaration of Independence
    • -property rights
    • -right to vote
    • -not to be treated as property
    • Susan B Anthony joins afterwards
  56. Romanticism
    • European Movement
    • challenge to reason and rationalism
    • nationalism, individualism, emotion, optimism
    • you can improve individuals
  57. American Renaissance: Literature
    • Hawthorne: The Scarlett Letter
    • -grables with puritan past(dude who's thankful happened but not around)
    • Melville: Moby Dick
    • -art of writing & word choice
    • Edgar Allen Poe: Mystery writer from Baltimore-Raven football team
    • Whitman: leaves of grass
  58. Transcendentalism
    • American version of romantic movement
    • mostly happening in New England
    • -mystical & intuitive-does not rely on reason only emotions
    • to transcend the senses and reason
    • highly individualistic bc conscience is the highest law(egotheism)-Emerson
    • problem: if everyones right how to settle differences
  59. Transcendentalism 2 groups
    • Self: try to improve self, internal awareness, can disobey law of land - Emerson "self reliance" Thoreau "Civil Disobedience"
    • Ex: Rosa Parks
    • =civil war
    • Society: try to improve society, social reform
    • ex: parker & fuller radicals, abolition & women's movement
    • brown taking up arms to free slaves
  60. Brook Farm
    • transcendentalists feel nature is best way to get in touch with self and thoughts=calming
    • founded by Ripley
    • didn't last long because of no rules
  61. changes on education
    • Literary increased bc # of books & newspapers increase
    • Lyceums movement: programs in Community Buildings to listen to speakers
    • Horace Mann & common schools
    • -push to Americanize immigrants
    • -vocational preparation
    • catholic schools develop to safe guard against public schools protestant ways
  62. Texas revisited pre-attack
    • annexed under Tyler, he gets it approved as a joint resolution law, Mexicans protests, boundaries not agreed upon
    • nueces v. rio grande
  63. Mexican war instigation
    • Polk sends taylor to Nueces w/troops
    • sends slidell on mission to offer $$ to Mexico
    • Mexico declines, Polk tells Taylor to cross rio grande=invasion=attacked
    • Polk says americans were attacked on American land, congress didn't know better=permission to go to war
  64. Mexican war
    • unequal from beginning, disadvantaged mexico
    • letters sent from troops tell truth, leaks to public, ? motives, diminishes support
    • if Polk was true, a bit overkill
    • Lincoln demands Spot resolution from POlk
    • Mexican children fighting to protect capital
  65. Treaty of Guadalupe
    • Nicholas Trist sent w/treaty
    • was suppose to get total control, came back 1/3 of country and paid $30 million
    • Polk about to fire him, but he sent copies to HOR and Senate members
  66. Post-war consequences
    • Gold rush in Cali, 1849ers, need established government bc mostly wild young men
    • since statehood is being requested and south slavery has to be addressed
  67. 4 people and their take on slavery in new territories
    • Wilmot proviso-ban in any territories we get from mexico
    • Taylor-split into 2 territories
    • Calhoun-everyone fought for it should be able to bring whatever we want
    • Cass-leave it up to the states that form there to decide
  68. election of 1848
    • Zachary taylor and lewis cass
    • no one took position on slavery
    • van buren runs as free soil party-against slavery
    • results were half and half for both for both north and south
    • Taylor ultimately wins Millford is VP
  69. Compromise of 1850
    • Clay's last one
    • Bills to settle slavery
    • Taylor will only sign if all are present at once-then he dies after 15 months of presidency
    • Millford will sign them individually
  70. provisions of compromise of 1850
    • -cali free states
    • -Utah and New Mexico territories subjected to popular sovereignty
    • -Assume texas debt
    • -Outlaw DC slave trade
    • -Fugitive Slave Law: northerners have to turn in escaped slaves
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American History exam III
exam III
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