glossary terms for chapter 12 grade 9 science ms day

  1. Direct Current (DC)
    • Current in which charged particles in a circuit travel in only one direction. Electrons travel from the negative terminal, through the circuit, to the positive terminal
    • eg. Batteries/cells use direct current to supply electrical energy
    • related terms- alternating current, electrical power
  2. Alternating Current (AC)
    • Current in which the flow of electric charge periodically changes direction. The electrons move back and forth. There is no net movement of charge.
    • eg. Power lines use alternating current.
    • Related terms-direct current, electrical power
  3. Transformer
    • A device that is used to reduce or increase the voltage of an alternating current.
    • eg. A transformer is used to decrease the voltage of electrical power before it enters your house
  4. Circuit Breaker
    • An automatically operated electrical switch used to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or a short circuit. Its function is to detect fault conditions and interrupt current flow
    • eg. circuit breakers are used in your home to keep us safe from the dangers of electricity
  5. Fuse
    • A device that is used to keep us safe from the dangers of electricity. A strip of wire  melts and breaks in an electrical circuit when the current exceeds a safe level
    • eg. Fuses are used in your home so that the current of an electrical circuit doesn't exceed a safe amount
  6. Electrical Power
    • The rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The unit of power is the watt.
    • eg. Electric power is produced by electric generators
  7. Watt (W)
    • A unit of power in an electric circuit, equivalent to one joule per second.
    • eg. a hair dryer uses 1200 watts
    • related terms-Kilowatt, electrical energy
  8. Electrical Energy
    • The energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor.
    • eg. This wire has lots of electrical energy
  9. Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
    • A unit of energy equal to 1000 watt-hours.
    • related terms-Kilowatt, Watt
  10. EnterGuide label
    • A label that shows details about the use of energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use
    • eg. A fridge uses 460 kWh
  11. Smart meter
    • A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour, and sends this information to the utility company automatically.
    • eg. the smart meter recorded how much energy you used yesterday
  12. Time of use pricing
    • A system of pricing in which the cost of each kWh of energy used is different at different periods of the day. It is broken up into off-peak, mid-peak and on-peak pricing.
    • eg. You try to use electricity at off-peak times in order to save money
    • related terms-Base load, intermediate load, peak load
  13. Phantom load
    • Electricity that is consumed by an electrical appliance/device even when it is turned off.
    • eg. My phone's battery went down by 5% when it was turned off
  14. Efficiency
    • The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input shown as a percentage.
    • percent efficiency=
    • useful energy output/total energy input x100
  15. Base load
    • The lowest continuous demand for electrical power.
    • eg.The base load for Ontario is 12 000 MW
    • related terms-Intermediate load, Peak load
  16. Hydroelectric Power Generation
    • Electricity generated by the movement of water.
    • eg. Niagra falls generates hydroelectric power
  17. Intermediate load
    • A demand for energy greater than the base load, but not as high as the peak load.
    • eg. Ontarios intermediate load is met by burning coal and natural gas
    • related terms-Base load, peak load
  18. Peak load
    • The highest demand for electricity.
    • eg. Ontario's peak load is met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas
    • related terms- Intermediate load, Base load
  19. Renewable energy source
    • An energy source that can be replaced fairly quickly or wont run out
    • eg. Hydroelectric energy is a renewable energy source.
    • related terms-non-renewable energy source
  20. Non-renewable energy source
    • An energy source that can't be replaced very quickly or will run out 
    • eg. Nuclear power is a non-renewable energy source
    • related terms- Renewable energy source
  21. Solar energy
    • Radiant energy emitted by the sun
    • eg. solar panels harness solar energy and convert it into electricity
  22. Photovaltic effect
    • The creation of voltage or electric current in a material when it is exposed to light.
    • related terms-solar energy
  23. Biomass energy
    • The burning/processing of renewable organic materials to be used to create energy.
    • eg. The wood was burned to create heat 
    • related terms-solar energy
Card Set
glossary terms for chapter 12 grade 9 science ms day
glossary terms for science ms day