Electricity Chapter 12

  1. Direct Current (DC)
    • Current from a cell in which charged particles travel in one direction in a circuit
    • Goes from negative terminal to the positive terminal
  2. Alternating Current (AC)
    • Moving a magnet through a coil of wire generates a current in the coil
    • Current moves in one direction when a pole of a magnet is inserted into the coil and in the opposite direction when the magnet is removed
    • Electrons move back and forth with no net dirction
  3. Transformer
    An electrical device that transforms the size of potential difference on an AC.
  4. Circuit Breaker
    A safety device that is placed in series in a circuit that leads to other appliances and outlets.
  5. Fuse
    A safety device that found in older buildings and appliances; like a circuit breaker leads to appliances and outlets.
  6. Electrical Power
    • The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy
    • Measured in W or KW
  7. Watt (W)
    Measurement for electrical power.
  8. Kilowatt (KW)
    Measurement for electrical power.
  9. Electrical Energy
    • The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting measured in KW-h.
    • E-PxT (power multiplied by time)
  10. Kilowatt-hour
    Measurement for electrical energy.
  11. Energuide Lable
    A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use.
  12. Smart Meter
    A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically.
  13. Time of Use Pricing
    • A system of pricing in which the cost of each KW-h of energy used is different at different times of the day
    • Broken down into high peak and low peak times
  14. Phantom Load
    • The electricity that is consumed by an appliance when it is turned off
    • A big factor is clocks on devices
    • Best way to avoid it is to unplug the device
  15. Efficiency
    • The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input 
    • Expressed as a %
    • Percent Efficiency= useful energy output/ total energy input
  16. Base Load
    • The continuous minimum demand for electrical power
    • Ontario = 12 000 MW
    • Ontario generated by hydroelectric and nuclear
  17. Hydroelectric Power Generation
    • Positives - environmentally friendly, economically friendly, renewable, con be turned on or off quickly
    • Negatives - we will run out of new locations of running water on which we can set up new power plants, we will need to rely on other types of energy to fill the demand
  18. Intermediate Load
    • A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load
    • Met by burning coal and natural gass
  19. Peak Load
    • The greatest demand for electricity
    • Met by hydroelectric and natural gass
  20. Renewable Energy Source
    • Energy that can be renewed in a relatively short amount of time
    • Eg. hydroelectric
  21. Non-renewable Energy Source
    • Energy that cannot be renewed in a relatively short amount of time
    • Eg. fossil fuels
  22. Solar Energy
    • Positives - 1m2 solar cell can supply (at 100% efficiency) enough power for most of the electrical devices, renewable, not hard on the environment
    • Negatives - most only work at 25% efficiency, not concentrated, costly
  23. Photovoltaic Effect
    The generation of DC when certain materials are exposed to light.
  24. Biomass Energy
    • Positives - only returns as much carbon as was originally in the organism (neutral), results in less acid rain, no heavy metals emitted, renewable
    • Negatives - resources to burn are not as available, costs to acess
Card Set
Electricity Chapter 12
Electricity glossary terms