Literary Theory

  1. Who wrote "A Defense  of Poetry"
    Percy Bysshe Shelley
  2. Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote...
    A Defense of Poetry
  3. Percy Bysshe Shelley was an advocate for the ___________ Theory.
  4. The Romantic Theory gave power to the ________
  5. Shelley's four values of literature are ____
    • Embody ideal perfection of age
    • strengthens moral organs
    • exposes beauty of the every day
    • empathy
  6. Romantic theory 5 requirements:
    • Author is god. Touched by divine/creator 
    • Great art is timeless 
    • Imagination is crucial 
    • Instrument of moral good
    • Lit = light of inner being
  7. Winstatt and Beardsley wrote
    The Intentional Fallacy
  8. The Intentional Fallacy was written by
    Winstatt and Beardsley
  9. Winstatt and Beardsley were what kind of theorists?
    New Critics
  10. What is the Intentional Fallacy?
    Mistaken belief that an author's intention determines the meaning in a text.
  11. Organic unity suggests that _________
    Everything is balanced. New critic idea.
  12. New Critics believe in ________ and think focus should be on______________
    • Organic unity
    • Focus on the text
  13. 3 steps of new criticism
    • Find a tension
    • trace repeated appearance of tension 
    • Explain how competing ideas work together to reveal something about how both sides relate
  14. What are the three tensions that new critics try to find?
    • Ambiguity
    • paradox
    • irony
  15. Who wrote Course in General Linguistics: Linguistic Value ? 
    Ferdinand Saussure
  16. Ferdinand Saussure wrote
    Course in General Linguistics: Linguistic Value
  17. Ferdinand Saussure believed in the ____________ approach
  18. The structuralists are interested in ______________
    The whole system. How do works fit with other works that follow the same pattern? and how do they break that formula?
  19. What is the definition of a "system" in terms of structuralism?
    Set of rules or conventions that define certain genres.
  20. Saussure calls the "system" another word. He calls it __________
  21. Saussure argues that language is _________ and ___________ constructed. (Over time _______ are _____________)
    Arbitrary, socially, rules, learned
  22. The structuralist diagram puts the _________ over the ___________
    signified, signifier
  23. The vertical exchange between the signified and signifier is called
  24. The horizontal exchange between the signified and the signifer is called the
  25. Explain "value" in terms of its use with words.
    Value is the understanding the value of words by comparing and contrasting with other words that have similar meanings. Such as comparing "Hungry" with "starving" "famished" etc
  26. What is the "signified" mean
    The idea of the object, such as the idea of a cat.
  27. What is the signifier?
    The word or image we associate with the idea. Such as the image of the "cat" and the word we pair with the idea.
  28. What is a "sign?"
    Concept tied to the image. such as letters.
  29. What is the referent?
    The thing itself.
  30. Performative utterences was written by?
    JL Austin
  31. JL Austin wrote ________
    Performative Utterences
  32. What is a performative Utterence?
    Makes something happen when it's stated. A statement that cannot be deemed either true or false. Performing that action instead of describing it. Such as apologizing or promising.
  33. What is a Felicitous performative utterence?
    • Acknowledges convention a correct circumstnace
    • sincere (meaning what you say)
    • Clear
    • Example: keeping a promise when making a promise
  34. Who wrote "structural analysis of Narrative?"
    Tzvetan Todorov
  35. Tzvetan Todorov wrote
    Structural analysis of narrative
  36. Who are the structuralist authors we've been studying?
    Todorov, Austin, Saussure, and Barthes
  37. Main ideas of todorov readings:
    • argument that science is objective and literature is subjective 
    • there is no social science that is subjectivity free
    • discussing difference of psychoanlaysis and new criticism 
    • Use of Decameron as example for the formula in plot x--> y ----> etc
  38. Syntagmatic change
    • horizontal change in syntax
    • Example: dog fights wild hog, gets injured ---> Wild hog gets injured, fights dog
  39. paradigmatic change
    • Vertical syntax change
    • For example: Luke Fights vader, wins quest ---> Frodo fights sauron, wins quest
  40. Syntagmatic vs Paradigmatic change is proposed by
  41. The Death of the Author is written by
    Roland Barthes
  42. Roland Barthes wrote
    The Death of the Author
  43. Roland Barthes argues that:
    • Writing calls for no ultimate meaning. 
    • Work can be followed and interpreted by there is no one definite answer
  44. "Multiple writing" was coined by _______ and it means:
    Barthes. Means that writing is a tangled that that cannot be unthreaded
  45. Main ideas for Roland Barthe's The Death of the Author
    • everything to be disentangled but not deciphered 
    • structure can be threaded but no end to it
    • refusal to sign ultimate meaning to text
    • Writing loses its origin then acts as performative utterence, effective based on mediator
  46. Who wrote the Deconstructive Angel?
    MH Abrams
  47. J Hillis Miller wrote
    The Critic As Host
  48. Deconstruction basically is
    • The multiplicity of meaning. 
    • Example: "The man took a stroll in the park"
    • breaking down the word stroll to make that sentence mean different things.
  49. MH Abrams wrote
    The Deconstructive Angel
  50. Deconstructive Angel Main Ideas
    • That Deconstruction breaks down until there is no meaning
    • Speech and literal meaning exist, showing that "what i said" means "What i said"
  51. J Hillis Miller The Critic as host main ideas
    Breaks down Parasite and Host to display deconstruction in action.
  52. Who wrote "The interpretation of Dreams?"
    Sigmund Freud
  53. Sigmund Freud wrote
    The Interpretation of Dreams
  54. Who wrote The Mirror Stage?
    Jacques Lacan
  55. Jacques Lacan wrote
    The Mirror Stage
  56. Psychoanalysis is
    The Freudian talking cure therapy
  57. Psychoanalysis was meant to cure
    Neurosis and Hysterics
  58. What are Hysterics?
    Physical symptoms with no physical cause
  59. What is the Super Ego?
  60. What is the Ego?
    The conscious self
  61. What is the id
    instinctive drives, urges we cannot acknowledge
  62. 2 aspects of the conscious are
    the ego and super ego
  63. the aspect of the unconscious is
    the id
  64. Freud's idea of how the Unconscious was uncovered was by these 5 ways
    • slips of the tongue
    • dreams
    • jokes
    • memory lapse
    • art and literature
  65. Frued coined the __________ complex
  66. Infant sexuality a la Freud
    • all infants are born in polyamourous perversing (sexual drives in all directions)
    • as they grow they are taught to restrict these desires
  67. What is Manifest Content mean
    Imagery an d words of dream itself
  68. Dream work is
    the actual dream
  69. Latent Content is
    the disguised stuff, "dream thoughts"
  70. What are Lacan's three stages
    • Infant Stage 0-6 months confusing blend of indistinct experiences, feelings, biological needs, sense perceptions
    • Mirror Stage 6-18 months seeing self causes psychological response that produces mental concept of I. The I vs ideal I. Asymptotoic of never reaching ideal I. That chase/split is what causes neurosis 
    • 18 months - 4 years acquisition of language. Law of the fathers aka law of no. When one understands "no"
  71. The use of force was written by
  72. Williams wrote
    The use of force
Card Set
Literary Theory
Literary theory and criticism