When do groups do bad things?) deindividuation
The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be identified
Predictors of deindividuation) group size
Larger crowds poroduce more anonymity
Predictors of deindividuation) physical anonymity : zimbardo hood study results
-women dressed in hoods and white coats delivered twice as many shocks when anonymous than when having a large name tag
Predictors of deindividuation) arousing and distracting activities
Actions that hype people up like clapping, chanting, singing
Predictors of deindividuation) diminished self awareness
increase self awareness leads to diminished deindividaution
Self awareness is the opposite of...
2 reasons why deindividution occurs?
-no personal accountability
-increases obedience to group norms
Where's one place to find a lot of deindividuation?
2 situations in which group beats individuals?
-they rely on the person with the most expertise
-they are motivated to search for the answer that is best for the entire group and not just for themselves
What is process loss?
Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
What contributes to process loss? (3)
No one listens to the expert
-failure to share unique information
How to avoid process loss? (2)
-assign each person different responsibilities
-take time to discuss unshared ideas
What is transactive memory ?
The combined memory of 2 people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual
2 ways transactive memory works
-knowledge held by individual group members
-communication network in place
What is groupthink?
Kind of thinking that maintaining group cohesiveness is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
Antecedents of groupthink (5)
-highly cohesive group
-poor decision making procedures
Symptoms of groupthink (6)
-illusion of invulnerability
-belief in moral correctness of group
-stereotyped views of out group
-pressure to conform
-illusion of unanimity
4 results of groupthink
-incomplete survey of alternatives
-failure to examine risks of the favored alternative
-poor infraction search
-failure to develop contingency plans
4 ways to avoid groupthink
-get outside information
-divide into subgroups