1. Name the Scales / Levels of Measurement (Least to Most Sophisticated)
    • "1. Nominal Scale [Mode]- Simply name variable in to discreet categories and count
    • 2. Ordinal Level [Median] - reflects magnitudes; you can rank variables; LIKERT Scales used for ranking
    • 3. Interval Scale [Median] - reflects magnitudes; equal intervals with arbitrary zero point
    • 4. Ratio Scale [Median] - reflects magnitude; equal intervals with absolute zero point"
  2. Abcissa
    Refers to the x-axis or the values of the variable
  3. Arbitrary (True) Zero Point
    Complete absence of the variable of interest
  4. Average
    • "Measures of Central Tendency;
    • can be the mean, the median, and the mode;
    • is the one value that best represents an entire group of scores"
  5. Bar Graphs are the best representation of what?
    • "Nominal Level/Scale
    • Mode"
  6. Cardinal Level of Measurement
    • 3. Interval Scale [Median] - reflects magnitudes; equal intervals with arbitrary zero point
    • 4. Ratio Scale [Median] - reflects magnitude; equal intervals with absolute zero point
  7. Collection of Data
    Data set or just data
  8. Descriptive Statistics
    • are used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data
    • Samples or populations
  9. Directional Research Hypothesis
    Reflects a difference between groups and the direction of the difference is specified
  10. Define, Formula
    A set of mathematical operators that performs a particular mathematical task
  11. Formula: Mean
    x bar equals x divided by N (the total count of items)
  12. Formula: Range
    • r equals the highest score minus the lowest score in the distribution
    • r = h - l
  13. Formula: Standard Deviation
  14. Function
    A predefined formula
  15. Histograms best represent
    • Cardinal level Scales of Measurement
    • Interval Scale (median)
    • Ratio Scale (median)
  16. Hypotheses
    Educated Guess
  17. Inferential Statistics
    • Used to make inferences from a smaller group of data to a possibly larger one
    • logic & procedures for evaluating risks of inference based on samples of the population
  18. Levels of Measurement
    Same as Scales of Measurement
  19. Mean Deviation
    • Mean absolute Deviation
    • the average of the absolute value of the deviations from the mean
  20. Mean or the X-Bar
    • The sum of all the values in a group divided by the number ofvalues in that group
    • Is sensitive to extreme scores
    • Is skewed in the dierction of the extreme score and therefore you would use the median
  21. Measurement
    The process of assigning a value or a score to the variable of interest
  22. Measures of Central Tendency
    • the Average
    • a single summary value reflecting where the bulk of the data cluster [mode, median, mean]
  23. The Median
    • The Midpoint
    • the point which one half, or 50%, of the scores fall above and one half, or 50%, fall below
  24. Mode
    The value that occurs most frequently
  25. Null Hypothesis
    statements of equality demonstrated by the following real-life null hypotheses taken from a variety of popular social and behavioral science journals.
  26. One-tailed Test
    (reflecting a directional hypothesis) posits a difference in a particular direction, such as when we hypothesize that Group 1 will score higher than Group 2
  27. Ordinant
    Refers to the y-axis or the frequency
  28. Parameter
    a measurable characteristic of a population; typically it is the mean
  29. Pie charts best represent
    Nominal Scale/Level (Mode)
  30. Population
    the larger group of data that the sample is taken from; a complete set of measurements having some common observable characteristics
  31. Properties of Scale
    • Magnitude of variable
    • Equal intervals
    • 1. Arbitrary Zero Point
    • 2. Absolute (True) Zero Point
  32. Range
    a collection of cells
  33. Research hypothesis
    a definite statement that there is a relationship between variables
  34. Sample
    the smaller group of data that is a portion, or a subset, of a population; a subset of the population
  35. Sampling error
    a measure of how well a sample approximates the characteristics of a population
  36. Standard Deviation
    represents the average amount of variability in a set of scores
  37. Statistics
    describes a set of tools and techniques used for describing, organizing, and interpreting information or data; a measurable characteristic of a sample
  38. Symbol: sigma
    find the sum of what follows
  39. Symbol: =/
    means "is not equal to"
  40. Symbol: the radical
    Square root sign,
  41. Symbol: N
    population or total number of cases ; noun
  42. Symbol: >
    means "is greater than"
  43. Symbol: H
    represents the symbol for the first research hypotheses
  44. Symbol: n
    sample size, noun
  45. Symbol: s
    standard deviation
  46. Symbol: X
    each individual score
  47. Symbol: X bar
    the mean of all the scores
  48. Symmetry or Skewed distribution
    Symmetry/Bell Shaped Curve = Reasonably Symmetrical
  49. Skewed
    • - Negative skew - mean is to the left of the median
    • - Positive skew - mean is to the right of the median
  50. Two-tailed test
    (reflecting a nondirectional hypothesis) posits a difference but in no particular direction.
  51. Variability
  52. reflects how scores differ from one another; also known as spread or dispersion; a measure of how different scores are from one another
  53. Variable
    a characteristic of interest that can assume different values
  54. x, y variables
    are used for areas of interest
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