# Flashcards-Statistics.txt

 Name the Scales / Levels of Measurement (Least to Most Sophisticated) "1. Nominal Scale [Mode]- Simply name variable in to discreet categories and count2. Ordinal Level [Median] - reflects magnitudes; you can rank variables; LIKERT Scales used for ranking3. Interval Scale [Median] - reflects magnitudes; equal intervals with arbitrary zero point4. Ratio Scale [Median] - reflects magnitude; equal intervals with absolute zero point" Abcissa Refers to the x-axis or the values of the variable Arbitrary (True) Zero Point Complete absence of the variable of interest Average "Measures of Central Tendency; can be the mean, the median, and the mode; is the one value that best represents an entire group of scores" Bar Graphs are the best representation of what? "Nominal Level/ScaleMode" Cardinal Level of Measurement 3. Interval Scale [Median] - reflects magnitudes; equal intervals with arbitrary zero point4. Ratio Scale [Median] - reflects magnitude; equal intervals with absolute zero point Collection of Data Data set or just data Descriptive Statistics are used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of dataSamples or populations Directional Research Hypothesis Reflects a difference between groups and the direction of the difference is specified Define, Formula A set of mathematical operators that performs a particular mathematical task Formula: Mean x bar equals x divided by N (the total count of items) Formula: Range r equals the highest score minus the lowest score in the distribution r = h - l Formula: Standard Deviation Function A predefined formula Histograms best represent Cardinal level Scales of MeasurementInterval Scale (median)Ratio Scale (median) Hypotheses Educated Guess Inferential Statistics Used to make inferences from a smaller group of data to a possibly larger onelogic & procedures for evaluating risks of inference based on samples of the population Levels of Measurement Same as Scales of Measurement Mean Deviation Mean absolute Deviationthe average of the absolute value of the deviations from the mean Mean or the X-Bar The sum of all the values in a group divided by the number ofvalues in that groupIs sensitive to extreme scoresIs skewed in the dierction of the extreme score and therefore you would use the median Measurement The process of assigning a value or a score to the variable of interest Measures of Central Tendency the Average a single summary value reflecting where the bulk of the data cluster [mode, median, mean] The Median The Midpointthe point which one half, or 50%, of the scores fall above and one half, or 50%, fall below Mode The value that occurs most frequently Null Hypothesis statements of equality demonstrated by the following real-life null hypotheses taken from a variety of popular social and behavioral science journals. One-tailed Test (reflecting a directional hypothesis) posits a difference in a particular direction, such as when we hypothesize that Group 1 will score higher than Group 2 Ordinant Refers to the y-axis or the frequency Parameter a measurable characteristic of a population; typically it is the mean Pie charts best represent Nominal Scale/Level (Mode) Population the larger group of data that the sample is taken from; a complete set of measurements having some common observable characteristics Properties of Scale Magnitude of variableEqual intervals1. Arbitrary Zero Point2. Absolute (True) Zero Point Range a collection of cells Research hypothesis a definite statement that there is a relationship between variables Sample the smaller group of data that is a portion, or a subset, of a population; a subset of the population Sampling error a measure of how well a sample approximates the characteristics of a population Standard Deviation represents the average amount of variability in a set of scores Statistics describes a set of tools and techniques used for describing, organizing, and interpreting information or data; a measurable characteristic of a sample Symbol: sigma find the sum of what follows Symbol: =/ means "is not equal to" Symbol: the radical Square root sign, Symbol: N population or total number of cases ; noun Symbol: > means "is greater than" Symbol: H represents the symbol for the first research hypotheses Symbol: n sample size, noun Symbol: s standard deviation Symbol: X each individual score Symbol: X bar the mean of all the scores Symmetry or Skewed distribution Symmetry/Bell Shaped Curve = Reasonably Symmetrical Skewed - Negative skew - mean is to the left of the median- Positive skew - mean is to the right of the median Two-tailed test (reflecting a nondirectional hypothesis) posits a difference but in no particular direction. Variability reflects how scores differ from one another; also known as spread or dispersion; a measure of how different scores are from one another Variable a characteristic of interest that can assume different values x, y variables are used for areas of interest Authoraouie23 ID28768 Card SetFlashcards-Statistics.txt DescriptionOB351 Updated2010-08-03T02:07:55Z Show Answers