What are some examples of spirochetes?
- Treponema Pallidum
- Nonsyphilitic Treponematoses - bejel, yaws, pinta
- Leptospira and Leptospirosis - biflexa and interrogans
- Borrelia: Arthropod-Borne Spirochetes- Borrelioses, B. Hermsii, B. burgdorferi
What germs cause syphilis and some characteristics about it
- Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Syphilis has three main stages: primary syphilis, secondary syphilis, and tertiary syphilis.
- Infection begins in the skin, progresses to other tissues in gradual stages,often marked by periods of healing interspersed with relapses
What are the stages of syphilis and symptoms of each stage?
- Incubation= 3wks: no lesion; treponemes adhere and penetrate the epithelium; after multiplying they disseminate
- Primary= 2-6wks: Initial appearance of chancre at inoculation site; intense treponemal activity in body; chancre later disappears
- Primary Latency= 2-8wks: Healed chancre; little scarring; treponemes in blood; few if any symptoms
- Secondary= 2-6wks after chancre leaves: Skin, mucous membrane lesions; hair loss; PT highly infectious; fever, lymphadenopathy; symptoms can persist for months
- Latency= 6months-8 or more yrs: treponemes quiscent unless relapse occurs; lesions can reappear
- Tertiary=Variable, up to 20 yrs: Neural, cardiovascular symptoms; gummas develop in organs; seropositivity
At which stage of syhphilis would you have cardio neurovascular damage?
What causes lyme disease?
Borrelia burgdorfrei and is transmitted by hard ticks of the genes Ixodes
What are symptoms of lyme disease?
- Flu-like symptoms
- Migratory joint pain
- Neurological problems
- Stiff neck
- bulls eye rash
- less common problems include:
- heart problems
- eye inflammation
- severe fatigue
What animal transmits lyme disease?
- Deer ticks typically feed on the blood of white footed mice, small birds and deer,but they can also feed on the blood of humans, cats, dogs and horses.They live in low bushes and tall grasses of wooded areas, waiting for warm-blooded animals to pass by. Deer ticks are most active in the summer.
- Complex 2 year cycle involving mice and deer
How do you treat lyme disease?
- Oral antibiotics: tetracycline, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, arithromycin, cefuroxime, and doxycycline for younger children
- Intravenous antibiotics
- Insect repellant containing DEET
- vaccine available for dogs
What germs causes cholera?
Cholera is caused by a germ known as vibrio cholerae. This germ produces a powerful poison or endotoxin. The disease is spread by flies and water contaminated by the germs.
What is a virulence of cholera (what makes it poisonous)
The virulence is due entirely to an entertoxin called cholera toxin (CT) that disrupts the normal physiology of intestinal cells
What are some symptoms of cholera?
- Leg cramps
How do you treat cholera?
- Most of the treatment for cholera is giving people fluids (water) and electrolytes (salts).
- Oral Rehydration Solution
- Some people cannot take enough fluids and electrolytes by mouth. Usually this is because vomiting is so bad. These people must be given treatment intravenously.
- Oral Antibiotics such as tetracycline and trimethoprimsulfa can terminate diarrhea and promote recovery
What is rice water stool?
- A highly watery stool resembling a pale milky water, and containing flecks of mucus, epithelial cells, and bacteria.
- Tell-tale symptom of cholera where there is a sudden onset of painless profuse liquid diarrhea.
Helicobacter pylori is?
- cruciform bacteria, It is a spiral bacterium that inhibits the stomach, it is microaerophillic and oxidative and has multiple sheathed flagella. it is responsible for 90% of stomach and duodenal ulcers, causes gastritis, part of normal flora of stomach.
- Produces urease which converts urea into ammonium and bicarbonate
What are symptoms of Heliocobacter pylori?
- Criciform bacteria
- Spiral bacterium
- Microaerophillic and oxidative
- Has multiple sheathed flagella
- Part of normal flora
- Affects epithelial cells of GI tract
- Causes inflammation and pain
The rickettsial infections, what do they cause? what do they infect?
- Rickettsial infections occur in the endothelial lining of the small blood vessels. The bacteria enter and multiply within the endothelial cells, causing
- necrosis of the vascular lining. Can cause skin rash, edema, hypotension, and gangrene. Intervascular clotting in the brain accounts for the stuporous mental changes and other neurological symptoms that may occur.
- Skin rash
- Muscle pain
- Joint pain
- Skin lesion
- Regional adenopathy
- Gastrointestinal symptoms
For fungal infections, how do they enter our body? what is the primary portal?
- Fungi enter mainly thru respiratory, lungs, airborne, mucous, and cutaneous routes
- Portal of entry
- Primary mycoses – respiratory portal; inhaled spores
- Subcutaneous – inoculated skin; trauma
- Cutaneous and superficial – contamination of skin surface
The ability of a fungi to grow as a mold or yeast, depending on temp is called?
How do fungi enter our body?
Fungi enter mainly thru respiratory, mucous, and cutaneous routes. Involves contact with environment instead of other humans.
Know examples of true fungal pathogens
- A true or primary fungal pathogen is a species that can invade and grow in a healthy, noncomprised animal host
- Also cause primary pulmonary infections, and they display thermal dimorphism when they enter the tissues
- Eumycota or Eumycetes= mushrooms, sac fungi, yeast, molds, rusts, smuts etc.
- Histoplasma capsulatum – causes Histoplasmosis
- Blastomyces dermatitidis – casuse Blastomycosis
- Coccidiodes immitis – causes Coccidiodomycosis
- Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis – causes paracoccidiodomycosis
What are some other words to describe the different levels of fungal infections?
- Systemic- deep mycoses, fungus disseminates from the lungs or other sites into the circulation. fungemia leads to infection of brain, kidneys and other organs.
- subcutaneous- occuring after a puncture wound has introduced the fungus deeper into the subcutaneous tissues
- cutaneous- involving the stratum corneum and occasionally the upper dermis
- superficial- extremely shallow epidermal colonizations
What part of the US has the most histoplamosis?
- Eastern and central regions of US (Ohio valley)
- This region includes all of Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, and West Virginia as well as large portions of Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas, and Virginia.
How does one get histoplasmosis, what are some characteristics, symptoms, how do you get it?
- You get it by inhaling small doses of microcondia, can be benign or severe, acute or chronic and can show pulmonary, systemic or cutaneous lesions.
- Most common true pathogen.
- Enlarged lymph nodes, severe scarring, heart problems, arthritis, adrenal insufficiency and meningitis
- Symptoms: Fever, Muscle aches, Headache, Dry cough, Chills, Chest pain, Loss of appetite, Sweats
Examples of dermatophytosis are?
- Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) affects the feet
- Tinea unguium affects the fingernails and toenails
- Tinea corporis affects the arms, legs, and trunk with ringworm
- Tinea cruris (jock itch) affects the groin area
- Tinea manuum affects the hands and palm area
- Tinea capitis affects the scalp
- Tinea barbae affects facial hair
- Tinea faciei (face fungus) affects the face
- Other superficial mycoses
- Tinea versicolor caused by Malassezia furfur
- Tinea nigra caused by Hortaea werneckii
What is ringworm of the nails?
Ringworm of the Nails( Tinea Unguium) invasion of the nail bed causes some degree of thickening, accumulation of debris, cracking, and discoloration nails can be separated from underlying structures
How do you get these tenias?
- Communicable from humans, also from soilFungi thrive in moist, warm
- areas, such as locker rooms, tanning beds, swimming pools and in skin
- folds. The fungi may be present without any symptoms.
Cryptoccosis can cause what illness?
Most cryptoccosis illnesses center around the respiratory, central nervous, and mucocutaneous systems. Can cause severe Meningitis
What fungal infection are in HIV/Aids PT's?
Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia PCP
- Candidiasis- This is a form of yeast fungal infection and are of three types. oral, vaginal and esophageal
- Cryptococcal Meningitis- This fungal infection causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord covering. It is acquired by inhaling dust where the fungus is present, usually from bird droppings.
What is amebiasis and what are some symptoms?
- Amebiasis is an infection of the intestine, liver, or other tissues by pathogenic amebas (protozoan parasites).
- Its an amoeba carried in the intestine, carried by 1/10 of population
- Protozoan pathogen from contaminated food or water, can cause Amebic dysentery with bloody stools, abdominal pain, fever ,diarrhea.
- Human’s primary host, can lead to ulceration of intestines can effect the liver
What is giardia and symptoms?
- Giardia infection is an intestinal infection marked by abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea and bouts of watery diarrhea. Giardia infection is caused by a microscopic parasite that is found worldwide, especially in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe water.
- Watery, sometimes foul-smelling diarrhea that may alternate with soft, greasy stools
- Abdominal cramps and bloating
- Belching gas with a bad taste
- Weight loss
What causes African sleeping sickness?
Trypanosoma brucei is the agent of African sleeping sickness
- Next 3 q's possibly: Cellular and Infective stages of the hemo flagellates
- Amastigote, Promastigote, Epimastigote, Trymastigote
- Leishmania=(A) intracellular in human macrophages, (P) found in sand fly gut;infective to humans, (E) does not occur, (T) dont not occur
- Trypanosoma brucei=(A) DNO (P) DNO, (E) present in salivary gland of tsete fly (T) in biting mouthparts of tsete fly; infective to humans
- Trypanosoma cruzi=(A) intracellular in human macrophages, liver, heart, spleen (P) occurs, (E) present in gut of reduviid (kissing) bug, (T) in feces of reduviid bug; transferred to humans
Chauga disease is transmitted by?
Transmitted by Reduviid bugs (kissing bugs) bug bites the corner of your mouth then craps there, then you rub the crap in the wound.
What transmits leishmaniasis?
- Transmitted by female phlebotomine flies (sand flies) that require a blood meal to reproduce.
- The symptoms of leishmaniasis are skin sores which erupt weeks to months after the person affected is bitten by sandflies. Other consequences, which can manifest anywhere from a few months to years after infection, include fever, damage to the spleen and liver, and anaemia.
What animal transmits African sleeping sickness?
- Cycle begins when the Tsetse fly becomes infected after feeding on an infected host such as a wild/domestic animal
- 1st stage. haemolymphatic phase and is characterized by fever, headaches, and joint pains, and itching
- 2nd stage. neurological phase, begins when the parasite invades the central nervous system by passing through the blood-brain barrier. The term 'sleeping sickness' comes from the symptoms of the neurological phase. The symptoms include confusion, reduced coordination, and disruption of the sleep cycle, with bouts of fatigue punctuated with manic periods leading to daytime slumber and night-time insomnia
What are the general properties of parasitic worms? (Helminthes)
Their multicellular animals with specialized mouthparts and adaptations such as reduction of organs, protective cuticals and complex life cycles
How do you avoid getting affected with parasitic helminths?
By proper sewage disposal, using sanitary latrines, avoiding human feces…food borne can be avoided by thoroughly cooking vegetables and meats