2.1 Understanding individuals within environments

  1. Kelly ecological principles) interdependence (2)
    -different parts of an eco-system are interconnected

    -changes in any one part of the system will have ripple effects on other parts of the system
  2. Kelly ecological principles) Cycling of resources
    • Systems can be understood by examining how resources are used, distributed, conserved, and transformed
    • *personal, social, and physical resources
  3. Kelly ecological principles) cycling of resources- what can be a key intervention for this concept?
    Social settings have many more resources that are commonly recognized thus harnessing these under utilized resources can be a key intervention
  4. Kelly ecological principles) adaptation (2)
    -focuses on transaction between person & environment

    -individuals, settings, and systems must adapt to changing conditions cyclically
  5. Kelly ecological principles) Succession
    Expects that settings and individuals change over time
  6. Kelly ecological principles) SUccession: what does this focus on?
    The historical context of a problem
  7. Kelly ecological principles) succession: what is this important for? (2)
    problem definition and planning interventions
  8. Social climate)
    Shared perceptions of a setting
  9. Social climate) what are the 3 dimensions?

    -personal development

    -system maintenance and change
  10. What are the 4 ecological principles (Kelly)

    -cycling of resources


  11. Social climate) relationships:
    Mutual supportiveness, involvement, and cohesion
  12. Social climate) personal development
    Whether individual growth is fostered in the setting
  13. Social climate) system maintenance and change
    Settings emphasis on order, clarity of rules, and control of behavior
  14. Social climate) what do they usually use to assess microsystems and organizational settings?
    Unique scales that apply to the appropriate field
  15. Social climate) what are 3 additional setting qualities that they measure?
    -physical features

    -organizational policies and norms

    -supra-personal factors
  16. Social climate) scales: what is supra-personal factors?
    -adding together the individual factors in setting

    **balance of gender, ethnicity, disabilities, class etc
  17. Social climate) what can the comparisons of social climate perceptions do?
    It may lead to conversations about intervention
  18. Social climate) scales: what can they do over time?
    They can track changes in climate over time
  19. Social climate) scales: what have social climate scores been associated with?
    • individual and setting outcomes
    • *satisfaction, performance, well being etc
  20. Social regularities)
    Settings can create predictable relationships among members that persist over time
  21. Social regularities) what do they focus on?
    On routine patterns of social relationships among the elements in a setting
  22. Social regularities) what does it call attention to?
    To role relationships, power, and resources
  23. Social regularities) Change AND social regularities
    • Social regularities can be obstacles to change
    • * they are so engrained within our norms
  24. Social regularities) what distinguishes social regularity and behavior settings?
    Consideration of power relationships, resources, and inequalities
  25. Social regularities) can schools be sorting institutions for social roles? How?

    Who took AP classes? Who took special ed classes?
  26. Social regularities) 3 ways to find social regularities?
    -search for patterns of behavior within a setting

    -examine roles of setting members

    -consider power relationships and patterns of behavior
  27. Social regularities) 3 research methods for IDing these
    -naturalistic observation

    -case study

    -ethnographic approaches
  28. Social regularities) contributions: what are they explicit about?
    -the importance of exploring roles, power, resources, and inequality
  29. Social regularities) contributions: what type of change will occur if social regularities can be altered?
    2nd order change
  30. Social regularities) 2 limitations
    -process takes a long time to assess

    -best suited for case studies
  31. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) who was it developed by?
    Robert and Louise barker
  32. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) what is ecological psychology?
    Identify behavior settings and understand physical features and social circuits that maintain them
  33. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) what are primary units for ecological psychology?
    Behavior settings
  34. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) what is behavior settings?
    Have a place, a time, and a standing pattern of behavior
  35. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) is a behavior setting just a physical place?
  36. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) Physical settings can have more than one behavior setting? T or F?

    *Methodist church example: hosts weddings, baptisms, mass etc
  37. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) are individuals interchangeable in behavior settings?

    * if you take me away from AT&T, somebody will replace me and act the similar fashion doing the same job tasks
  38. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) what are the 4 rules that behavior settings have?
    -program circuits

    -goal circuits

    -deviation countering circuits

    -vetoing circuits
  39. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) program circuits
    Guide the standing behavior pattern
  40. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) goal circuits
    Satisfy goals of individuals
  41. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) which 2 rules have control mechanisms?
    -deviation countering circuits

    -vetoing circuits
  42. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) optimally populated: 3 characteristics?
    -has as many or more players than roles

    -potential for marginalization of students not in roles

    -more characteristic of larger schools
  43. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) Underpopulated setting (3)
    -has more roles than members

    -increases members sense of responsibility for maintaining the setting

    -small schools
  44. Ecological psychology and behavior settings) limitations (2)
    -model only focuses on behavior and discounts cultural meanings and subjective processes

    -underplays how setting are created and changed
  45. Activity settings) quick summary of itq
    Behavior setting plus subjective meanings
  46. Activity settings) what needs to happen in order to understand activity settings?
    One must need to understand something about the culture they are observing
  47. Activity settings) what does it contend?
    People actively create the significance of these settings
  48. Activity settings) what does it introduce within psychology field?
    A way to study culture
  49. Activity settings) which 4 fields have benefitted from this?
    -child development



    -community intervention
  50. Activity settings) 6 key elements of activity settings
    -physical setting


    -people and interpersonal relationships


    -symbol use

  51. Activity settings) what is intersubjectivity? (2)
    -beliefs, assumptions, values, and emotional experiences that are shared by setting participants

    -it develops over time
  52. Activity settings) limitations of this approach (2)
    -requires time and resources to gather data

    -limited comparisons of activity settings across contexts
  53. Environmental psychology)
    • Examines the influence of physical characteristics of a setting on behavior
    • *focuses on how the environment is build
  54. Environmental psychology) what does it grow out of?
    Social psychology
  55. Environmental psychology) what is lewin's equation?
    B= f PE
  56. Environmental psychology) minimal focus on...
    Relationships between people compared with other approaches
  57. Environmental psychology) interests of environmental psychology: (3)
    -environmental stressors

    -environmental design

    -application of science to social action
  58. Environmental psychology) interests of environmental psychology: environmental stressors
    -noise, air pollution, crowded housing
  59. Environmental psychology) interests of environmental psychology: environmental design
    Architectural design and neighborhood features
  60. Environmental psychology) interests of environmental psychology: application of science to social action
    -road construction by school and how it affects kids health and learning
  61. The effects of neighborhoods) distal risk processes
    Neighborhood characteristics associated with individual problems

    *bad hoods typically have more crimes and mental illness
  62. The effects of neighborhoods) protective processes (2)
    • -social processes
    • *social ties, sense of community, safety

    • -interpersonal
    • *parenting styles mentoring
  63. Creating alternative settings) mediating structure?
    Creating alternative settings to provide conditions and resources that support the functioning of people for whom the current options do not work
  64. Creating alternative settings) how do alternative settings usually work?
    Occurs at organizational level in response to stressors at micro, organizational, and macro levels
  65. Creating alternative settings)
Card Set
2.1 Understanding individuals within environments
Chapter 5