digestive system

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  1. This is the fat digesting enzyme
    pancreatic lipase
  2. this is the carbohydrate digesting enzyme
    pancreatic amylase
  3. these are the protein splitting enzymes (3)
    trypsin, chemptrypsin and carboxypeptidase
  4. this is where the proteolytic enzymes are stored in tiny structures
    zymogen granules
  5. enzymes that break down nucleic acid into nucleotides
  6. this peptide hormone stimulates the pancreas to secrete abundant fluid when acidic chyme enters the duodenum
  7. protiens and fats in chyme in the duodenum stimulate release of
  8. what sphincter controls what leaves the stomach
    pyloric sphinter
  9. what sphincter controls what enters the stomach
    esophageal sphincter
  10. what are the three stages of gastric secretion?
    • cephalic
    • gastric
    • intestinal
  11. what are the three secretory cells found in the stomach?
    • parietal
    • chief
    • mocous
  12. what do parietal cells secrete
    • HCL
    • intrinsic factor
  13. what does HCL activate
    pepsinogen to pepsin
  14. what does pepsin do?
    breaks down protiens
  15. what do chief cells secrete
  16. what do mocous cells secrete
  17. what is the alkaline tide?
    this is where H ions are brought into the stomach and bicarbonate is put into the bloodstream and the Cl is put into the stomach to combine with the hydrogen ions
  18. list two digestive reflexes
    • emetic (vomiting)
    • enterogastric
  19. what three areas is the intestine divided into?
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  20. this is the movement of food quickly through the system
    peristaltic rush
  21. what are the three triggers of the cephalic stage
    • sight
    • smell
    • taste
  22. what hormone inhibits the digestive process
  23. what hormone activates the digestive process
  24. what cells does gastrin stimulate
    • parietal cells
    • chief cells
    • mucus cells
  25. what system of the ANS allows for digestion
  26. list the triggers of the gastric phase
    • stretch
    • higher pH
    • protiens
  27. what three chemicals are released by stomach cells in response to the ttriggers of the gastric phase
    • HCL (also intrinsic factor)
    • pepsinogen
    • mucus
  28. what type of food moves quickest and slowest throught the stomach
    • fats and carbs are quick
    • protiens are slow
  29. what is the main digestive function of the liver
    create bile
  30. what function does bile perform
    emulsifies fats
  31. what is the function of the gall bladder
    store bile
  32. what are the three tonsils
    • lingual
    • palatine
    • pharyngeal
  33. what are the four types of teeth
    • incisors
    • cuspids
    • bicuspids
    • molars
  34. what is the purpose of salivary glands
    • moisten food
    • begins break down of carbs
  35. name the three salivary glands
    • parotid
    • submandibular
    • sublingual
  36. what are the two functions of the digestive system 5
    • ingestion
    • propulsion
    • absorption
    • defacation
    • digestion
  37. what are the two types of digestion
    • mechanical
    • chemical
  38. The action of actually grinding food to then be digested is called
    Mechanical Digestion
  39. The process of breaking down foods at the molecular level is called
    Chemical Digestion
  40. What are the accessory organs of the digestive system
    • Salivary Glands
    • Liver
    • Gall Bladder
    • Pancreas
  41. What are the layers of the alimentary Canal
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • muscularis
    • Serosa
    • Lumen
  42. What is ingestion
    Taking in nutrients through food with actually "Eating"
  43. The excretion of wastes is
  44. Taking in nutrients especially in the small intestine is
  45. What are the 8 main parts of the alimentary Canal
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • rectum
    • anus
  46. what is mixing movements
  47. what is propelling movements
  48. The movement of food through the digestive system is
  49. The break down of food in the digestive system is
  50. what is the purpose of peristalsis
    To mix food with the bile and other digestive enzymes
  51. what is the purpose of segmentation
    To move food through the system to continue the nutrient absorption and then for defecation
  52. what branch of the ANS stimulates digestion
  53. what branch of the digestive system inhibits digestion
  54. What are the two plexus involved in controlling the digestive process
    • Submucosal plexus
    • myenteric plexus
  55. What are the two main fucntions of the large intestine
    • absorbs water and electrolytes
    • forms and stores feces
  56. what is the main digestive function of the stomach
    • digest protiens
    • mix with gastric juices
    • move food into the small intestine.
  57. a mix of food and gastric juice is called
  58. what is a specialized structure of the stomach that it allows it to function
    The stomach contains gastric pits that secrete and form gastric juices
  59. the mucos membrane of the stomach is lined with these functional parts of the stomach
    gastric pits
  60. The folds with in the stomach are called
  61. what are the major enzymes found in the pancreas
    • pancreatic amylase
    • pancreatic lipase
    • nucleases
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidase
  62. this is the carbohydrate digesting enzyme of the panc
    pancreatic amylase
  63. this is the fat digesting enzyme of the panc
    pancreatic lipase
  64. What are the three main proteolytic enzymes
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidase
  65. what does trypsin,chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase do?
    break down protiens
  66. what is the function of zymogen granules?
    stores the proteolytic enzymes
  67. what activates tripsinogen into tripson
  68. trypsinogen when in active form of tripsin activates what
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidase
  69. this breaks down nucleic acid molecules into nucleotides
  70. what is the function of enterokinase
    activate tripsinogen into tripsin
  71. what two hormones control pancreatic secretions
    • CCK
    • secretin
  72. what is the path of the pancreatic juice
    acinar cells which are made into a acini down into the pancreatic duct into the hepatopancreatic ampulla through the sphincter and into the duodenum
  73. what is the main function of the small intestine
    • recieve secretions from pancreas and liver
    • completes nutrient absorption,
    • transports remaining residue to large intestine
  74. how is the mucosa of the SI specialized to support its functions
    contains vili and micro vili that absorb nutrients of the products of digestion
  75. this supports the nerves, blood, and lymphatic tissues of the intestinal wall
    the mesentary
  76. list the 5 major enzymes found in the small intestine
    • pepidases
    • sucrases
    • maltases
    • lactases
    • intestinal lipase
  77. what does the vili of the SI do
    • increases surface area
    • aids in absorption
  78. what do the lacteals of the vili do
    carries away the nutrients through a lymph vessel
  79. circular folds in the SI are called
    plicae circularis
  80. in what structure are the chief cells, parietal cells, and mucus cells located?
    They are found in the gastric pits of the mucosa
  81. during the gastric stage what is the effect of  the substances released because of the trigger? and what substances are released?
    • Gastrin-increases release of gastric juices
    • Histamine - increases release of gastric juices and helps promote more capilary permeability later on
    • ATCH-suppresses release of somatostatin
  82. what are the triggers of the intestinal phase?
    • stretch of the duodenum
    • protien
    • lipids
    • acidic pH
  83. what is the trigger of the intestinal phase 1
    stretch of the duodenum
  84. which hormone is released due to the trigger of protiens and lipids
    • CCK
    • Gastrin
  85. what is the result of the release of CCK
    • BIle release
    • release of pancreatic juice
    • release¬† of Bicarbonates
  86. which hormone is released due to the trigger of acidic pH
  87. what is the result of the release of secretin
    release of bicarbonates of the pancreas
  88. if chyme that is entering the intestine is fatty what will be released
    CCK to further inhibit peristalis
  89. what is the enterogastric reflex
    peristalis slows and the intestine fills slowly
  90. what do kupffer cells do
    removes most bacteria from blood by phagotosis
  91. what is the livers role in digestion
    to secrete bile
  92. the breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles. It is accomplished mainly by bile acids in the small intestine.
  93. what is the fuction of the gall bladder
    store and release bile
  94. what are all the fuctions of the liver7
    • carb metabolism
    • lipid metab
    • protien metab
    • glycogen and vitamn storage
    • blood filter
    • detox
    • secrete bile
  95. these help protect the body against infections
  96. list the three tonsils
    • lingual tonsil
    • palatine
    • pharyngeal
  97. where is the lingual tonsil found
    back of tongue
  98. where is the palatine tonsil found
    back of the mouth on either side of tongue
  99. where is the pharyngeal tonsil found
    posterior wall of the pharynx
  100. what is another word for the pharyngeal tonsil
  101. what are the four types of teeth
    • incisors
    • cuspids
    • bicuspids
    • molars
  102. where are the incisors
    front teeth for biting off things
  103. where are the cuspids
    aka canines used for grasping and tearing
  104. where are the bicuspids
    aka premolars used for grinding
  105. where are the molars
    the back teeth used for grinding
  106. how many teeth are in the secondary
  107. where is the parotid gland
    front of ears
  108. where is the submandibular gland
    bottom of jaw
  109. where is the sublingual gland
    under tongue
  110. list the two secretory glands of the salivary
    • serous
    • mucus
  111. what do serous cells of the salivary glands produce
    • salivary amylase
    • which splits carbs
  112. what do mucus cells of the salivary produce
    mucus to help lubricate
  113. what are the accesory organs
    • salivary
    • liver
    • gall
    • pancreas
  114. list the parts of the alimentary canal 8
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • rectum
    • anus
  115. where are goblet cells found
    large intestine
  116. what are the layers and functions of the alimentary canal
    • mucosa - protection,secretion,absorb
    • submucosa-nourishes, transports
    • muscularis-movements
    • serosa- protection,lubrication
  117. what is the location and fucntion of the submucosal plexus
    controls secretions and is located in the internal part of the digestive systems
  118. where is the myentric plexus and whats its funtions
    controls motility through muscular layer located below the submucosa
  119. what two things does the large intestinehave that the small does not
    • tenia coli
    • haustra
  120. what are the four main pats of the large intestine
    • cecum
    • colon
    • rectum
    • anal canal
  121. what is the cecum
    the beginning of the large intestine which is like a pouch
  122. what is the appendix
    no digestive process except may store useful bacteria
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digestive system
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