Clin Path- Serum Biochemical Profiles.txt

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  1. ________ is the fluid portion of anti-coagulated blood; __________ is the fluid portion of coagulated blood.
    Plasma; serum
  2. 3 functions of plasma proteins.
    maintain osmotic pressure, transport ions and other molecules, contribute to hemostasis and immunity
  3. A refractometer is used to measure __________.
    plasma protein (falsely increased by lipemia)
  4. A spectrophotometer is used to measure _________.
    serum protein (falsely increased by lipemia)
  5. How do you perform serum protein electrophoresis?
    Serum is applied to agarose gel or cellulose acetate and proteins are separated by electrical charge; then the gal or paper is stained
  6. With serum protein electrophoresis, ______________ is proportional to ______________, and the concentration of individual proteins is calculated by multiplying ___________ by the _____________.
    intensity of stained proteins; the amount of protein present; % of protein in each fraction; hand-measured total serum protein
  7. Hypoalbuminemia may result in... (3)
    edema, ascites, or delayed healing of incisions
  8. Increased albumin is caused by ___________.
  9. Decreased albumin may be caused by... (4)
    decreased production, increased loss, altered distribution, increased catabolism
  10. Decreased production of albumin occurs with... (4)
    malnutrition, malabsorption, liver disease, compensatory response to hypergammaglobulinemia
  11. Increased loss of albumin occurs from the... (4)
    kidneys, intestine, skin, and blood loss
  12. Altered distribution of albumin occurs with ____________.
    ascites (accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity)
  13. Increased catabolism of albumin occurs with... (4)
    Cushing's disease, hyperthyroidism, trauma, and infection
  14. Haptoglobin, a(n) _____________, increases with _____________ and decreases with ____________.
    α-globulin acute phase reactant; inflammatory disease; hemolytic anemia
  15. Acute phase reactants increase in ______________.
    inflammatory disease
  16. C-reactive protein, a(n) _______________, increases with ___________.
    acute phase reactant; inflammatory insult
  17. Transferrin , a(n) ______________, decreases in _______ and ________ and increases in... (3)
    β-globulin; inflammation; chronic liver disease; IDA, acute liver disease, and nephrotic syndrome
  18. Fibrinogen, a(n) _________, decreases in __________ and increases in __________.
    β-globulin; DIC; inflammation
  19. __________ are produced by plasma cells.
  20. You usually see decreased A:G ratio with ____________.
  21. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by... (3)
    over-hydration, increased loss, decreased production
  22. Hyproproteinemia is caused by over-hydration when Albumin is ______ and Globulin is ________.
    decreased; decreased
  23. Hypoproteinemia is caused by increased loss through external hemorrhage when Albumin is _________ and Globulin is _________.
    decreased; decreased
  24. Hypoproteinemia is caused by increased loss through renal and interstitial loss when Albumin is __________ and Globulin is _________.
    decreased; normal, progressing to decreased
  25. Hypoproteinemia is due to decreased production of gamma globulins due to... (2)
    acquired immunodeficiency (FeLV, FIV, canine distemper, parvo), congenital immunodeficiency (SCID)
  26. With SCID in Arabian foals, _________ fail to _________.
    lymphocytes; differentiate
  27. Laboratory findings associated with SCID in arabian foals include... (3)
    lymphopenia, absence of IgM, neutrophilia due to infection and inflammation
  28. FTPI is associated with increased ___________ in the ____________ of life.
    infections; first 2 weeks
  29. In foals, if TP is less than ________, evaluate serum for IgG; IgG less than __________ is FTPI.
    4.5 g/dL; 800mg/dL
  30. In calves, if TP is less than _______, evaluate serum for IgG; IgG less than ________ is FTPI.
    4.5 g/dL; 1600 mg/dL
  31. Hyperproteinemia can be caused by.... (2)
    dehydration, increased production
  32. Hyperproteinemia due to increased production of α-globulins may be due to... (3)
    increased production of acute phase reactants (acute inflammatory disease), hepatitis, kidney disorders
  33. Hyperproteinemia due to increased production of β-globulins may be due to... (2)
    monoclonal gammopathy, hepatitis
  34. Hyperproteinemia due to increased production of γ-globulins may be due to __________ or __________, which are caused by... (1, 6)
    polyclonal gammopathy (chronic inflammatory disease), monoclonal gammopathy (multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma, chronic inflammation due to FIP, Ehrlichiosis, Leishmaniasis)
  35. Clinical findings associated with multiple myeloma... (5)
    pain, petechiae, bleeding, recurrent infections, osteolytic lesions
  36. Laboratory findings associated with multiple myeloma...(6)
    anemia, bi/pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased plasma cells, hyperproteinemia, monoclonal spike on SPE
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Clin Path- Serum Biochemical Profiles.txt
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