NTD309 exam 2 (part 4)

  1. need in very small amounts
    trace mineral
  2. what kind of mineral is iron?
    trace mineral
  3. is iron organic or inorganic
  4. most common deficiency in the world?
    iron deficiency
  5. 2 types of iron?
    heme and nonheme
  6. heme iron is found in?
    animals and is more absorbable
  7. non heme iron is found in?
    plants and is not very absorbable
  8. people who get their iron from plants need to?
    up their intake by eating almost 1.8x the amt of iron
  9. 4 functions of iron?
    • proteins
    • energy metabolism
    • anti-oxidant/pro-oxidant
    • synthesizes DNA
  10. tertiary 3D figure
  11. iron is part of enzymes which?
    make chemical reactions occur in body
  12. an enzyme breaks down a ____ to ?
    • substrate
    • 2 smaller things
  13. enzymes need what to make chemical reactions go?
    vitamins or minerals
  14. iron dependent enzymes
  15. family of enzymes dependent on iron
  16. what do cytochromes do?
    • participate in energy metabolism
    • synthesize ATP
  17. cytochromes participate in energy metabolism as to
    carry electrons to electron transport chain
  18. helpful free radical that kill off pathogens in body
  19. too much iron can feed bacteria in gut
  20. need to double intake of iron
  21. vitamin C increases absorption
    meat factor
  22. iron transport/storage order?
    absorptive cell to blood stream to bone marrow
  23. stores iron as ferratin
    absorptive cell
  24. iron protein complex that travels through blood together
  25. stored iron in absorptive cell
  26. what happens every 3-5 days?
    you loose absorptive cells and everything in it
  27. live stores iron as ?
  28. stage 1 iron deficiency?
    iron stores are gone and you don't know you have it
  29. stage 2 iron deficiency?
    • transferring levels go down because theyre no needed and theres not enough iron to make it
    • *don't know you have It
  30. when you don't know you have it
  31. stage 3 iron deficiency anemia?
    • hemoglobin levels are down
    • iron stores are gone
    • transferrin levels are low and you don't have enough hemoglobin to make red blood cells
  32. with stage 3 iron deficiency anemia you feel?
    fatigued and bad, dry skin
  33. 2/3 or iron in body is
  34. iron containing protein similar to hemoglobin but only found in muscle cells
  35. energy metabolism is involved in?
    amino acid and lipid metabolism in TCA cycle
  36. excess iron can promote the production of?
    free radicals
  37. iron is required for?
    • growth
    • reproduction
    • healing
    • immune system
  38. women should have how much iron? men?
    • 2g
    • <4g
  39. iron is essential but toxic at high levels so its highly regulated through
    digestive, absorption, transport, storage and excretion
  40. absorption rate of iron is?
  41. heme is __ % absorpable
  42. becomes part of cellular iron pool
  43. non-heme is what percent absorbable?
  44. for non-heme absorption is influenced by ? which reduces?
    • stomach acid
    • ferric iron to ferrous iron
  45. increases iron absorption?
    • meat factor
    • vitamin C
  46. decreases iron absorption?
    • phytates (grains)
    • vegetable proteins
    • fiber
    • calcium
  47. vegan iron absorption rate?
  48. person with a typical western diet absorption rate?
  49. iron deficiency is due to?
    • low dietary intake
    • inadequate absorption
    • excessive blood loss
  50. stage 3 is known as?
    overt iron deficiency
  51. stage 2 is where?
    transferring levels increase
  52. stage 1 is where?
    depletion of iron stores
  53. iron deficiency anemia outcomes?
    • impaired intellectual development
    • lead poisoning
    • pregnancy complications
    • impaired immune function
  54. poor cognitive development, poor schools achievement and behavorial problems
    impaired intellectual development in children
  55. iron deficiency may increase the risk of
    lead poisoning in children
  56. severe anemia in pregnant women =
    adverse pregnancy outcomes
  57. iron is required to mount an effective?
    immune response
  58. people at risk for iron deficiency?
    • infants and children
    • adolescents
    • pregnant women
    • those with chronic blood loss and celiac disease
    • vegetarians
  59. what foods provide heme iron?
    • chicken liver
    • oysters
    • turkey
    • chicken
    • shrimp
  60. what foods provide non-heme iron?
    • cereals
    • soybeans
    • beans
    • tofu
    • spinach
    • bread
    • molasses
Card Set
NTD309 exam 2 (part 4)
Iron Fall 2014