1050: PRINCIPLES of Antimicrobial/Antiinfective meds Exam 2

  1. How do anti-infectives fight viruses? (inhibit)
    • Inhibits:
    • -cell wall synthesis
    • -protein synthesis
    • -DNA synthesis
    • -viral enzymes
    • -the use of substances rqd for growth&reproduction.
  2. Compare bacteriostatic vs bacteriocidal.
    static: slows action of bacteria in the presence of anti-infective.

    cidal: kills bacteria
  3. What is selective toxicity and antimicrobial resistance?

    What's the difference between large (dose) and narrow (dose) spectrum drugs?

    Define spectrum.
    S. toxicity: kills/supresses the microbe w/o harming the host.

    a. resistance: microbe becomes more resistant to drug.

    • Large dose = greater chance of resistance
    • Narrower the spectrum of drug = less likely resistant (more effective).

    Spectrum: range of microbes that respond to the drug.
  4. Combination Therapy: what is a synergistic effect?
    When two or more drugs work together.
  5. How do microbes create drug resistance? (4)
    1) creates new enzyme that inactivates drug.

    2) changes cell receptor site.

    3) changes cell wall permeability.

    4) changes metabolic processes.
  6. Culture & Sensitivity: how does the right drug get chosen for the microbe (bug)?

    *Be aware of age, immune status, kidney&liver functions.
    • Use:
    • 1) narrowest spectrum
    • 2) drug that requires LEAST treatment time.
    • 3) drug that will reach infection site

    *monitor effectiveness of drug.
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1050: PRINCIPLES of Antimicrobial/Antiinfective meds Exam 2