Pathology exam 1

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  1. Eukaryotes:
    intercellular compartment called organelles that include a well defined nucleus.
  2. Prokaryotes:
    no organelles, no nuclear membrane, differences in chemical composition and biochemical activity. no proteins called histones for DNA
  3. Mitochondria: "Energy Production"
    oxidative phosphorylation uses oxygen(aerobic) = 1:32 atp
  4. Cytoplasm:
    Contain mitochondria and it creats 1:2ATP
  5. Glycolysis:
    Anaerobic- breakdown of sugar 1:2 ATP
  6. Waste Management:
    Destroy: Golgi decides where it goes.
  7. Peroxisome:
  8. Lipids:
  9. Protein:
  10. Cell signaling:
    • Autocrine-self
    • Paracrine-surrounding cells
    • Hormonal-blood endocrine glands
  11. Nucleus:"Library"
    Dna,Mrna,Endoplastic Reticulmn,Ribosomes
  12. DNA has two jobs
    • replication"cancer"
    • Protein synthesis-most common
  13. Transcription:
    converting DNA to MRNA
  14. Tranlation:
    Where ribosomes produce an amino acid to make protein and live in the endoplastic reticulmn.
  15. Cellular transport: Passive diffusion
    • high to low so down hill, no gravity, no ATP
    • Force that drives it is concentration gradient.
    • A. small, B. lipid soluble, C. neutral
  16. Facilitated diffusion:
    • high to low, carrier-protein, No ATP
    • A. big, B. charged, C. h2o soluble
  17. Active transport:
    Needs ATP, protein-channel, low to high uphill.
  18. DNA replication:
    Mitosis, Meiosis
  19. Mitosis:
    "Toes" 2 daughter cells-diploid look the same 46 chromosomes, for growth and healing
  20. Meiosis:
    "Mini Me" 4 daughter cells, 23 total chromosomes, Haploid, sexual cellular division. Making gametogenesis(babies).
  21. DNA has two functions:
    • Replication: forms chromosomes for replication.
    • Nucleolus: its the name for protein synthesis
  22. What do you need to make DNA:
    Phosphate bond, sugar(deoxyribose)Rna(ribose), 4 nitrogen base (ATCG), Rna(AUCG)
  23. Protein: codon
    • Every 3 codon=1 amino acid
    • We have 20 amino acids.
  24. TRNA:
    Carry amino acids to Ribosomes.
  25. Intron:
    are found in the genes of organisms, viruses.
  26. Exons:
    expressed or moved to messenger RNA
  27. Mutation:
    Any inherited alteration of genetic material
  28. Polymorphisims:
    Many forms changing of genes
  29. Point Mutation:
    Base pair substitution, one base pair replaces another so 3 replaces 3. Most common doesn't cause a disease.
  30. Frameshift Mutation:
    insertion or deletion of base pairs not form of 3 which cause a shift in reading frame the causing an alteration in the AA sequence.
  31. Mutagens:
    Agents that increase the frequency of mutation.(radiation,nitrogen mustard, vinyl chloride)
  32. Polyploidy- psyology
    Euploid cells-
    • Cells with multiple of the normal number of chromosomes.
    • Gametes euploid=haploid 23
    • Somatic=Diploid 46
  33. Aneuploidy=Pathophysiology
    A cell that does not contain a multiple of 23 chromosomes it has extra or missing some
  34. Trisomic/trisomy:
    there are 3 copies of one chromosome
  35. Monosomy:
    presence of only chromosome, for example female have only one X instead of two.
  36. Partial trisomy:
    extra portion of each chromosome is present in each cell
  37. Chromosomal mosaic:
    two population with different genotypes
  38. Examples of aneuploidy in somatic chromosomes:
    • Trisomy 13-plateu syndrome(least common)
    • Trisomy 18-edwards syndrome
    • Trisomy 21-down syndrome
    • The lower the number the more pathological
  39. Trisomy X:
    5 or more increases mental retardation,
  40. Klinefelter syndrome:47 xxy
    They have primary traits of male at birth but the don't have any puberty changes.
  41. 5- Reductase deficiency (xy)
    46 normal chromosomes but they are missing one enzyme. Primary female traits but secondary male traits.
  42. Autosomal Recessive:
    Means two copies must be present from both parents. Sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis.
  43. Autosomal Dominant:
    You only need to get the abnormal gene from one of the parents autosomal mean in chromosomes 1-22,Muscular dystrophy hunington's.
  44. X-linked Recessive:
    Its for males because females need two copies of the bad x gene. Hemopholia
  45. Genotype:
    Set of genes a person have in their genome.
  46. Phenotype:
    physical attributes as coded by genes and environmental factors that contribute to the attributes. left the disease untreated.
  47. Homozygous:
    having identical pair genes; like identical twins
  48. heterozygous:
    Having two different alleles from a single trait; twin that are different
  49. Autosomal Recessive (Y): Sickle cell hemoglobin
    • One mutation: genotype=heterozygous
    •                     :phenotype=negative
    • Two mutations: genotype=homozygous
    •                      : phenotype=positive
  50. Autosomal Dominant(X): Huntington, MD
    • One Mutation: genotype=heterozygous domint
    •                    :phenotype=positive
    • Two mutations: genotype=homozygous domint
    •                      :phenotype=positive
  51. X-Linked Recessive: hemophilia/female (x)
    one: geno=hetero recessive /pheno=negative

    Two: geno=homo recessive /pheno=positive

    Male:one=geno hetero/ pheno= positive
  52. X-Linked Dominant: the are equal in female and male.
    • one: geno=hetero/ pheno=positive
    • two: geno=homo / pheno= positive
    • male: one = hetero/ pheno= positive
  53. Polygenic traits:
    genotype of multiple genes all acting together; skin color, eyes, height
  54. Multifactorial inheritance:
    when environment factors influence the expression of a trait: alzheimers
  55. Empirical Risks:
    assumption of a disease
  56. Atrophy Pysiologic:
    • -breakdown in tissues reduction in size.
    • -increase in size: heart
  57. hyperplasia: psyologic
    • -increase in the number of cells
    • -replacement from one differential cell type to another differential cell type.
  58. Dysplasia: Pathological
    Cancer-abnormality of development, epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation. Expansion of inmature cells.
  59. BPD:
    • Bronco-pulmonary dysplasia pre cancer but not cancer:
    • smoking, you have diplastic tissue.
  60. Apoptosis:
    -programmed cell death Karyohexis primary marker for apoptosis.
  61. Tummor suppressor gene:
    • if its "on"= no cancer
    • if its "off"=cancer
  62. Ocogenes:
    • if its "off"= good no cancer
    • if its "on" = cancer
  63. Metastasis:
    cancer has moved to neighboring cells; blood and lymph it has traveled.
  64. Tumors have to basic components:
    Parenchyma: from neoplastic cells, distinguishing cells of that organ

    Stroma: connective tissue cell of any organ which support the parenchyma cells of that organ
  65. Mixed tumors:
    Divergent differentiation of a single neoplastic clone
  66. Teratomas:
    Neoplasm containing recognizable mature or inmature cells, have the ability to differentiate to any of the cell types found in the body.
  67. 6 hallmarks for cancer:
    • 1. self sufficiency in growth signals
    • 2.insensitive to antigrowth signals
    • 3.evading apoptosis
    • 4.replecative potential
    • 5.angiogenesis=growing new blood vessels
    • 6.metastasis
  68. The p53:Tummor suppressor gene guardian of the human genome
    distruption is a 50 of all cancers, acts like a checkpoint in the cell cycle, preventing or programming cell death.
  69. P53:inactivation
    • mutation inherited, or family member, outside source, DNA tumor viruses, adenovirus, hpv
    • mdm-2 which binds with p53 and inactivates it
  70. Angiogenesis:
    new blood vessels form from preexcisting blood vessels. 1-million tumor cells can grow without blood supply.
  71. Telomerase: enzyme from the cancer that it will allow to grow infinite
    inhibits natural cell death via programmed loss of the telomere in each mitrotic divison: 12 mitrotic divisions after 12 they are not allowed anymore.
  72. Cancer treatment:
    chemo,radiation,surgery,anti-angiogenesis(anti-VEGF), bone marrow transplant, laser treatment.
  73. clonogenic cells post radiation:
Card Set
Pathology exam 1
Exam 1, Cellular biology, Mutations, Oncology
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