Venous system Anatomy Lecture Notes

  1. How much of the blood volume is located within the veins?
    60 % of the blood volume
  2. How much lower is the pressure in the venous system than in the arterial system?
    15-20 mmHg
  3. Edema is considered a ....
    venous system problem
  4. What is the general rule regarding the smooth muscle in the veins?
    the larger the vein the less the smooth muscle it contains
  5. Valves open and close in response to what?
    pressure gradients
  6. Where is the largest amount of valves located?
    in the calf below the knee
  7. Where are there no valves?
    Venae Cavae (plural form)
  8. How many valves are located in the PTV's?
  9. How many valves are located in the ATV's?
    9-11 valves
  10. How many valves are located in the Peroneal veins?
    7 valves
  11. How many valves are located in the SFV?
    3 valves
  12. How many valves are located in the EIV?
  13. Where does the cardiac veins drain into?
    into the coronary sinus
  14. Ulnar veins drain the what?
    Superficial Palmar Arch
  15. Radial veins drain the what?
    Deep Palmer Arch
  16. How long is the Left Brachiocephalic Vein?
    2 1/2 inches
  17. How long is the Right Brachiocephalic Vein?
    1 inch
  18. Innominate vein is also called...

    An important thing to remember regarding the Innominate vein...
    Brachiocephalic vein

    Have an Rt. and Lt. Innominate veins
  19. What landmark does the brachial vein become the axillary vein?
    teres major muscle
  20. What are two possible anatomical variations of deep veins in the upper extremity?
    2 axillary veins


    2 brachial veins or all the way up
  21. What is the important thing to remember about the Common Iliac Veins?
    Lt. Common Iliac vein could have more problems because of the 90 degree angle = greater chance of thrombus.
  22. Where does the superficial veins lay?
    Lie between 2 layers of superficial fascia.
  23. Where does the Inferior Vena cava lay in relation to the abdominal aorta?
    Inferior Vena Cava is to the right of aorta.


    Aorta is to the left of the Inferior Vena Cava
  24. Where do the Common Iliac Veins join to make Inferior Vena Cava?
  25. What bifurcates higher...

    aorta or inferior vena cava?
  26. Where do the renal veins lie in relation to the renal arteries?
    veins anterior or in front of the arteries
  27. Where is the Common Iliac V. lie in relation to the Rt. common A.?
    below and behind
  28. Where does the popliteal vein lie in relation to the POPA?
    posterior or behind
  29. What vessels flow into the IVC?
    renal veins and hepatic veins
  30. What is another name for the internal iliac vein?
  31. What is the landmark for the external  Iliac Vein?
    Inguinal ligament or Poupart's ligament
  32. What vein does the great saphenous dump into?
    the Common Femoral Vein
  33. What is the Junction called that blood and thrombus passes from superifical veins into deep veins in the Lower extremity?
    Sapheriofemoral junction or Saph-fem Junction

    Blood from Greater saphenous veins drains into the Common femoral vein.
  34. What is the landmark for the Anterior Tibial Veins?
    Interosseous Membrane
  35. Prox ATA and ATV's are located closer to what bone?
  36. Dist ATA and ATV's are located closer to what bone?
  37. What is the landmark for the Posterior Tibial Veins?
    Intermuscular Membrane
  38. The Tibioperoneal Trunk veins are formed from what two sets of veins?
    Peroneal veins


    Posterior Tibial Veins
  39. Where is a common place for thrombus formation within the lower extremity?
    Soleal Sinuses
  40. What does thrombus look like in the Soleal Sinuses?
    Looks like grapes
  41. Why are Soleal Sinuses common site for thrombus formation?
    They are little reservoirs where blood just sits and is inactive.

    They are valveless spaces.
  42. What does the Soleal Sinuses drain into?
    Posterior Tibial veins

    and the

    Peroneal Veins
  43. What is the cardiac output?
    the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.
  44. What is the stroke volume?
    the amount of blood pumped by lt. ventricle in one cycle.
  45. What is the law that explains the relationship of venous return and cardiac output?
    Frank Starling Law
  46. What is the formula of cardiac output?
    stroke volume X heart rate
  47. What are three venous functions?
    1.) affect cardiac output

    2.) Help regulate body temperature

    3.) Store blood
  48. When your body is hot what is it's natural response to cool itself?
    small cutaneous veins dilate and heat escape
  49. When your body is cold what is it's natural response to warm itself?
    small cutaneous veins constrict and minimize heat loss
  50. What does Capacitance mean?
    ability to store blood
  51. What does Phasicity mean?
    respirations help get venous blood back to the heart with the help of valves.
  52. What does Confluence mean?
    when two veins form into one vein
  53. What is Venae comites or comitants?
    when there is 2 or more veins and an artery
  54. What are six venae comites or comitants?
    • 1.) Radial
    • 2.) Ulnar
    • 3.) Anterior Tibs
    • 4.) Posterior Tibs
    • 5.) Peroneals
    • 6.) Gastrocs
  55. What is the transmural pressure when standing?

    What is intraluminal pressure?
    What is the tissue pressure?
    High transmural pressure

    • high intraluminal pressure
    • low tissue pressure
  56. What are two other names for the Greater Sapheneous?
    Long Saphenous Vein


    Internal Saphenous Vein
  57. What are three other names for the Lesser Saphenous?
    Short Saphenous

    Small Saphenous

    External Saphenous
  58. What are the three ways that help veins get blood back to the heart?
    1.) Respirations

    2.) valves

    3.) calf muscle pump
  59. What is the intraluminal pressure at the ankle when standing?
    80 mmHg
  60. What is the intraluminal pressure at the ankle level when lying down?
    10 mmHg
  61. What is the intraluminal pressure at the ankle level when walking?
    25 mmHg
  62. What veins may normally have pulsatility like arteries? (3)
    • 1.) Internal Jugular Vein
    • 2.) Subclavian Veins
    • 3.) sometimes the Axillary veins
  63. What are 6 symptoms of venous insufficiency?
    • 1.) Recurrent swelling of lower calf and ankle
    • 2.) Chronic limb swelling
    • 3.) Venous Claudication-pain in legs due to venous congestion.
    • 4.) Telangiectasias-intradermal venules of 1 mm or less in diameter.
    • 5.) Reticular veins- dilated subdural veins of 1-4 mm
    • 6.) Varicose veins
  64. What are the 6 Doppler Characteristics in Normal veins?
    • 1.) Patency- vessel is open
    • 2.) Spontaneity- flow is present or not putting transducer down.
    • 3.) Phasicity- venous flow varying with respiration.
    • 4.) Nonpulsatility- normal veins are not corresponding to cardiac cycle.
    • 5.) Augmentation-An increase in venous flow due to a maneuver.
    • 6.) Competence- valves are working
  65. What does vena mean?
    vein (singular form)
  66. What does venae mean?
    vein ( plural form)
  67. What are the Sural veins?
    the veins that drain blood from the calf into the popliteal vein.
Card Set
Venous system Anatomy Lecture Notes
venous system anatomy