Last set 2500 exam2

  1. Reasons for Word-Use Errors:
    Children make ___ __ ___ - they may truly think that a horse and a cow are the same kind of animal and thus use to word horse to label a cow because they know the word horse
    category membership errors
  2. Reasons for Word-Use Errors:
    Children make ___ ____ - when they know that two objects are conceptually different but do not yet have a name for one of the objects and intentionally substitute a semantically related word
    pragmatic errors
  3. Reasons for Word-Use Errors:
    Children make a ___ ____ - when they know a certain word but for some reason cannot retrieve the word and unintentionally select a different word.
    retrieval error
  4. The ___ tier of lexical principles framework includes the principles of reference, extendibility, and object scope
  5. The ____ tier of lexical principles framework includes the principles of conventionality, categorical scope, and novel name-nameless category (N3C)
  6. Children can use tier ___ principles as soon as they begin to acquire words because these principles rely on cognitive-perceptual abilities
  7. First Tier Principles:
    The principle of _____ states that words symbolize objects, actions, events, and concepts. (For example, Daddy stands for or symbolizes someones father)
  8. First Tier Principles:
    The principle of ____ refers to the notion that words label categories of objects and not just the original exemplar. 
    -Therefore the word ball can be used to describe multiple objects that fall under the basic category ball
  9. First Tier Principles:
    The principle of ___ ____ states that words map to whole objects
    -First, children using the principle of object scope assume that novel words label objects rather than actions. When children hear a novel label, they prefer to attach the label to an object instead of an action
    object scope
  10. Second, object scope presupposes that the ___ ___ ___, which means that words label whole objects and not object parts. Therefore a toddler who witnesses a bird flying in the sky will likely assume that the word bird refers to the bird rather than the action of flying around
    whole object assumption
  11. Second Tier Principles:
    The principle of ____ states that for children to communicate successfully they must adopt the terms that people in their language community understand
  12. Second Tier Principles:
    The principle of ___ ____ builds on the tier 1 principle of extendibility by limiting the basis for extension to words that are in the same category.
    categorical scope
  13. Second Tier Principles:
    The principle of ____ ___-____ ____ supports the ter 1 principle of the object scope by helping children select a nameless object as the recipient of a novel label
    novel name- nameless category
  14. Infants can follow another persons gaze and pointing gestures, engage in joint attention, and imitate actions by age ___-___
  15. As early as ___ months, infants can use social cues
  16. Fast mapping is not limited to an ability or word learning
    -This is because it is considered a ___-___ word learning mechanism
  17. a ___ ____ is the part a word plays in an event, and such roles include agent, theme, source, and location
    thematic role
  18. An ____ is the entity that performs the action
  19. The ___ is the entity undergoing an action or a movement (Tamika flew a kite)
  20. A ____ is the starting point for movement
    A ____ is the ending point for movement
    source, goal
  21. ___is the place where an action occurs is the place where an action occurs
  22. Toddlers learn from an early age that ___ ____ link to corresponding syntactic elements
    -2.5 year old toddlers attend to the overall structure of sentences when interpreting new words
    thematic roles
  23. ___ functions by requesting information from other people to learn about the world
  24. Toddlers dont display much skill in ____
    -Toddlers demonstrate some skill in starting a _____, but they cannot usually sustain it for more than one or two turns
    -Toddlers have difficulty keeping their audience’s needs in mind
    -They are not proficient at realizing when they are not following along in a ____
  25. -An individual toddler’s language development is not linear
    -They follow a series of spurts and plateus
    intraindividual differences
  26. -Boys and girls typically show differences in language acquisition and use
    -Birth order affects language acquisition
    -SES status has an impakt
    Interindividual differences
  27. Three popular measures for research:
    -production tasks, comprehension tasks, and judgement tasks
  28. Production Tasks:
    -The experimenter produces a target phrase and the requests that the child repeat it exactly a she heard it.
    -Gauges underlying linguistic competence, and takes advantage of children’s natural ability to imitate other people’s movements and speech sounds and compare them to adultlike forms
    -Researchers assume that for a child to successfully imitate a target, the target must be a part of the child’s grammatical repertoire
    elicited imitation tasks
  29. Production Tasks:
    -designed to reveal aspects of children’s language abilities by having them produce specific sentence structures in the context of a game
    -Introducing a novel name and seeing if the child can produce the correct inflections (wug -> wugs)
    elicited production tasks
  30. Have kids either match or point to pictures of target words and phrases or act out phrases they hear an experimenter say
    Comprehension Tasks
  31. Comprehension Tasks:
    the experimenter presents a language target and asks the child to choose the picture that corresponds to the target
    picture selection task
  32. Comprehension Tasks:
    -use to investigate the child’s competence with various language constructions, and experimenter presents a child with a series of props and instructs the child to “act” out the sentences he or she hears
    act-out task
  33. Comprehension Tasks:
    -Children are asked to decide whether certain language construction are appropriate so that their level of grammatical competence can be assessed
    Judgement tasks
  34. Comprehension tasks:
    -Children are asked to judge certain language constructions to be correct or incorrect.
    -Scenarios are presented and questions are asked
    truth value judgement tasks
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Last set 2500 exam2