Psych 202 test chapter 13-14

  1. ruminating
    repeated, intrusive thoughts about stressful event
  2. catastrophizing
    dwell on and exaggerate negative consequences
  3. mental sets
    cling to 'usual' solutions
  4. functional fixedness
    not seeing alternative uses for objects/solutions
  5. impaired decision making
    impulsive, poor judgment
  6. emotion-focused coping strategies
    • aimed at reducing stress response (outcomes) or enhancing mediators
    • self-controlling, distancing, positive reappraisal, accepting responsibility, escape/avoidance, physical coping (drugs, food, exercise, yoga, meditation)
  7. cognitive coping strategies
    • thinking calmly, rationally, and constructively
    • replace catastrophic thinking by viewing stressors as challenges rather than threats
    • cognitive restructuring (identify upsetting thoughts, develop and practice more constructive thoughts about situation, does not eliminate stressors, they seem less threatening and disruptive)
  8. Rosenstock's Health Belief Model
    decisions about health-related behaviors are guided by four main reasons: 1. Perceiving threat or risk of illness-injury. 2. Perceiving the seriousness of the consequences of the illness-injury. 3. Belief that changing behavior will reduce the threat. 4. Perceived costs vs benefits of changing
  9. Changing Health Behaviors: Prochaska's stages of readiness
    precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance
  10. Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRSS)
    • Stress = sum of recent Life Change Units (LCUs)
    • High scores > risk physical and mental health disorders
  11. Life Experiences Survey (LES)
    • Measures life events and cognitive appraisals of + or - 
    • new stressors may be added by respondents
  12. Hans Selye Responses to stress (General Adaptation Syndrome)
    Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
  13. cortisol
    • reduces immune system functioning, creates fatty deposits int he arteries that lead to hypertension and heart disease. 
    • mobilize the "fight or flight" response
  14. 4 main approaches to personality
    • psychodynamic
    • trait
    • social-cognitive
    • humanistic
  15. Id, Ego, and Superego
    • Id: most basic, demands immediate satisfaction
    • Ego: Will make compromises between id and superego, operates at conscious level
    • Superego: moral arm of personality
  16. archetypes
    • inherited tendencies to interpret experiences in certain ways
    • myths, symbols across cultures, God, evil, mother figure, afterlife, hero
  17. Carl Jung
    Personal unconscious vs collective unconscious
  18. Karen Horney
    discounted penis envy, said women envy men's social/political power
  19. Alfred Adler
    striving for superiority, overcoming inferiority of childhood (inferiority complex)
  20. Bowlby
    attachment theory
  21. personality traits (definition)
    relatively stable cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics that distinguish individuals as unique
  22. The Five Factor Model (Big 5 theory)
    • Openness
    • Conscientiousness
    • Extraversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism
  23. What is the biggest influence on personality?
    biological or genetic influences
  24. phenomenology
    the individual's own unique world view
  25. what does humanistic psych focus on?
    • present (not past/unconscious)
    • embraces a positive view of humanity
  26. projective test
    present ambiguous stimuli and ask for interpretation
  27. Carl Rogers' approach
    • Theory of self
    • self-actualization: accurate experience of our authentic self
    • self concept: how we view our "self" influences personality-behavior
  28. Rotters locus of control
    • expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives
    • internal: life outcomes are under personal control
    • external: outcomes have less to do with one's own efforts than with the influences of external factors
  29. Bandura's approach
    self-efficacy: a person's beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviors needed to achieve desired outcomes. task specific
  30. Rorschach test
    • series of 10 inkblots
    • ambiguous
  31. Thematic apperception test (TAT)
    subject is instructed to write a story about what is happening in the picture
Card Set
Psych 202 test chapter 13-14
read the title geez