Media Ethics Exam 1

  1. Definitions of Technology
    • Ellul: any complex of standardized means for attaining a predetermined result
    • Houston: extensions of human powers by rational instrumentation
  2. Perspectives on Technology
    • Postman: there is always a loss in tech changes and sometimes a gain (pop culture reverses this)
    • Carr: tech literally changes you (brain has changed from deep reading to skimming)
  3. 3 Characteristics of Technological Culture
    • We become technologized
    • We believe in Technology
    • We become technoconformists
  4. We Become Technologized
    • we value in ourselves what we value in tech
    • 1. Speed
    • 2. Efficiency
    • 3. Transcience
  5. Speed (we become technologized)
    • We want faster, not fast
    • we have heightened anxiety and lower patience 
    • we want to save time and yet we keep rushing
    • we have hurt our persistence and give up quickly
  6. Efficiency (We become technologized)
    • Ellul: tech tempts us to assume efficiency is the only requirement
    • limits our moral evaluation; eff is all we care about
    • we focus on means and are how-to oriented
    • become efficiency oriented even in romance/sex
  7. Transcience (We become technologized)
    • we always want to upgrade even when nothing is wrong, things become disposable 
    • hankerchief-->kleenex
    • affects how we view marriage
  8. We believe in technology (components)
    Hope and Faith
  9. Hope (we believe in tech)
    • Crawford: shop class, manual labor, difference between using tech and knowing about it 
    • Bennett: believes tech classrooms will be the hope for the next gen and will solve many ed problems 
    • Davidson: MOOCs; more access to higher ed; although still problems
  10. Faith (we believe in technology)
    • Houston: tech is worshipping of techniques for their own sake (i.e. wanting to upgrade simply because)
    • Pirsig: 'their flight and hatred of tech is think others is to demean the Buddha, which is to demean oneself' 
    • Sternheimer: media is a scapegoat for evil--it is not the root of social problems, it diverts us from them
    • Doubt=technophobe; Faith=technophile
    • Neoluddith: modern people who critique technology
  11. We become technoformist (components)
    • 1. Pseudoindividuality
    • 2. Impersonality
    • 3. Spectator Orientation
  12. Pseudoindividuality (we become technoconformist)
    • more tech, more alikeness
    • we are individualist in our principles but conformist in our pursuit
    • we should be more aware of technology
    • our brains start to function the way computers do
  13. Impersonality (technoformist)
    • Wendell Berry: treating others/being treated as non-persons
    • it's awkward when we break these norms (like talking to strangers)
  14. Spectator Orientation (technoformist)
    • Bush: the mass media have made us not global villagers but global voyeurs
    • we act like we've had an experience but really we've just seen it
  15. Is technology neutral?
    • Monsma: technology is value laden because
    • 1. it has consequences (i.e. can kill you)
    • 2. it is made from resources (i.e. plastic is bad even if used for good)
    • 3. it is made with values (i.e. efficiency)
  16. Iron Core
    Jones: food supply for democracy, news of business/politics/war/etc., all else is derived from core, accountability news
  17. Competition (nature of news)
    • Graber: news directors are like any other director, they think of the audience
    • Competitive with DEADLINE and AUDIENCE
  18. Self-image as 4th estate (nature of news)
    • Jefferson: the press is that liberty that guards our other liberties
    • sometimes the press thinks they're above the law
    • they do checks on the gov't 
    • who checks them?!
  19. Sanctity of Truth (nature of the news)
    • 1. Truth as End (true to life and true to situation)
    • 2. Truth as Means (should use ethical means to get to story)
    • 3. Truth as Motive (not for disaster or personal gain but for truth and righteousness)
  20. Business/Institutional Pressures Central Issues/Tensions
    • Narrowcasting: targeting a specific audience with specific stories
    • Daily Me: choosing stories that confirm what we already believe
    • Issues: money, business v public service, pleasing shareholders, values present but devalues past
  21. Business Pressures Sommerville
    • "why news makes us dumb" article
    • must convince audience buying paper today will be 'different' from yesterday
  22. Case 1
    • FOX biases: FOX is actually conservative biased news commentary and not real news
    • partisan different b/w people who approve of FOX as a news source
  23. Case 2
    Accessibility to all: broadband companies can restrict how fast things load, gov't can't take advantage of unlimited personal data out there, there is always so much to access
  24. Case 3
    Philadelphia Inquirer: obsession with profitability hired CEOs who knew nothing about journalism and cut bunches of costs and had zero credibility
  25. Case 4
    • Wichita: asked readers what they wanted to read
    • participatory journalist
    • telling what they wanted to hear instead of what they needed to hear?
  26. President Obama quote on speech
    The strongest weapon against hateful speech is not repression--it's more speech
  27. First amendment interpretations
    • Absolutist: no means no--never restrict speech
    • Preferred Position Balancing: if two values are at odds, burden of proof means FotP wins * 
    • Access: people have right to publish/print/access media
  28. Miami Herald v Tornillo (1974)
    Government cannot force paper to allow a citizen to publish in it
  29. Truthtelling Central Issues/Tension
    • Telling Under Pressure
    • How Much to Tell
    • Changing the Truth
  30. Telling under Pressure
    "The government always wants the reporters on the team.  But if the jouranlists are on the team, who is calling the game?"
  31. How Much To Tell
    • MSNBC decided on a 7 second delay after accidentally showing a suicide
    • Tension: public's right to know 
    • --it's far greater a value to forfeit our right to know (realize it's not our business/not ethical)
  32. Changing the Truth
    • fabrication is a significant news issue
    • false quotes, framing photos, etc.
    • OJ Simpson's mug shot (newsweek=light; time=dark)
  33. Case 5
    • Obseity Epidemic: when changing a study into a news report, we must add bias/analysis/interpretation, but still clearly inform
    • don't cause some crazy scare for no reason
  34. Case 6
    • Al Jazeera: household name post 9/11 bc it was the only news source allowed to stay 
    • only way of receiving footbage
    • probably biased
    • shared graphic stuff we wouldn't normally share
  35. Case 7
    • Unabomber's Manifesto: he forced NYT and Post to publish 35k word manifesto or else he would bomb more
    • his bro read it and recognized it was him and called the police
    • led to his arrest
  36. Case 8
    • Muhammad Cartoon: Denmark paper published 12 images falsely depicted Muhammed
    • very offensive
    • created war bw muslims and EU trying to show FotP
  37. Libel Law Definition
    • 1. prove it was published
    • 2. plantiff identified in communication
    • 3. defamatory (hurt rep)
    • 4. false
    • 5. led to personal harm
    • 6. was due to fault (priv: negligence; pub: actual malice)
  38. NY Times v. Sullivan (1964)
    court cases regarding famous people must not just be careless but show intention to harm, which makes winning public libel basically impossible
  39. Reporters and Sources central issues
    • Reporter: vital that their reputation is trustworthy
    • Source: actually getting sources to talk
    • Public: convincing publish of worthiness of 'informed sources'
  40. Case 11
    • Coverage of the ME: reporters more biased towards Israel bc so is US govt
    • intl sources cover palestine more
    • minimize bias means acknowledging source bias and going outside source to achieve objectivity
  41. Case 12
    • food borne illnesses: 
    • 1. delay presentation of story until all facts are in
    • 2. add perspective not just by showing 2+ sides to a story
    • 3. must actually understand stats and be informed in topic in order to report them
  42. Case 13
    • Watergate: Woodward and Bernstein memorized jurors names and tried to get info out of them but then juror told judge and judge anonymously reprimanded them and they still denied doing this in order to further investigate the case
    • this is an unethical means to an ethical end
  43. Motives of Informed Sources
    self interest, my idea gets attention, revenge, public's right to know, fun of the game
  44. 1848 NY Herald Case
    • in mex/am war a journalist discovered treaty and wouldn't reveal sources and was jailed
    • witnesses must testify in court of law
  45. 6th amendment
    witnesses must testify in court of law
  46. Branzburg v Hayers 1972
    journalists saw illegal things but refused to say who and supreme court says reporters must reveal in grand jury but nowhere else
  47. Social Justice: Objectivity v. Advocacy
    • Objectivity v. Advocacy:
    • 1. there are 2+ sides to objectivity and moral side not often given airtime
    • 2. press is always a participant bc they frame the issue
    • 3. press must be selective in final presentation which is based on values
  48. Social Justice quotes
    • Dennis: we cannot achieve either (or both) advocacy and objectivity, so we must strive for fairness
    • Greenfield: we cannot published The Daily Everything
  49. Case 16
    Brandi Chastain: even thought it happened, it was the sole focus, change in FIFA rules, sexism
  50. Case 17
    Ten Weeks at Wounded Knee: conflict bw indians and govt--media sensationalized the case to talk only about violence and misled the public to where they knew nothing about the actual political conflict
  51. Case 18
    Facebook: fb is a business based in advertising that has no cares about privacy and does not make that clear to its users
  52. Hartt on efficiency
    we want to reduce the friction faster
  53. Newsworthiness Criteria
    • "the news traffics in catastrophe" (overstreet)
    • proximity
    • prominency
    • human interest
    • consequence
    • timeliness
    • entertaining
    • good video 
    • economical
  54. History of FotP
    • 1476 england first printing press no restrictions 
    • seditious libel/licensing laws
    • colonial america: zenger started newspaper criticizing english and at first he was imprisoned but they realized that ain't fair and then 1st amendment
  55. Methods of Restricting FotP
    • seditious libel: no criticism of govt or those in power 
    • licensing: you must submit what you want ahead of time (1928 still occurred in Russia)
  56. Andersen v. Liberty Lobby 1986
    i dont know :(
Card Set
Media Ethics Exam 1
EXAM October 20