microbiology midterm

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  1. pleomorphic
    Exhibit different shapes within the culture.
  2. Cocci
    Spherical organisms
  3. Staphylococcus
    Spherical grape-like clusters.
  4. Sarcina (packet)
    Cocci divided along 3 perpendicular axes.
  5. Bacillus
    Rod shape
  6. Vibrio
    Short helix, bend rod shape.
  7. Spirochete
    Longer helical cell, flexible and changes its shape during movement.
  8. Spirillum
    Long helical cell that's rigid and unbending.
  9. Gram positive bacteria
    • Gram positive bacteria have more peptidoglycan layers. Has teichoid acidand teichuronic acid.
    • Image Upload 1
  10. Gram negative bacteria
    Image Upload 2
  11. Actinobacteria
    Multicellular rod-shape organisms that produce long filaments containing many cells.
  12. Tricome
    Multicellular shape encountered in cyanobacteria. Superficially resembles a chain, adjoining cells have a much spatial and physiological relationship than the other cells in a chain.
  13. Transformation
    DNA is released into the environment by lysis of one organism and is taken up by another.
  14. Conjugation
    Cell-to-cell contact between two closely related bacteria.
  15. Transduction
    Prokaryotic viruses are involved in transferring DNA from one to another.
  16. Endospores
    Resting stage unique stage unique to bacteria that's formed within the cell.

    • -Gram positive bacteria.
    • -Allow bacterium to survive extended periods of desiccation and high temp, UV radiation and disinfection.
  17. Capsules
    Composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Physical barrier that protects the cell from the external environment.  Prevents virus attachments and infection. Helps with attachment to surfaces.
  18. Slime Layers
    Move by a type of motility called gliding. Requires that the organism remain in contact with a solid substrate. Gliding bacteria produces an EPS termed "slime," part of which is lost in the trail.
  19. Sheaths
    Sheathed bacteria produce a much denser and highly organised  external later, or sheath.  Sheath bacteria form filamentous chains that protect against the turbulence in water.
  20. S-layers
    Also called protein jackets and are often highly textured surfaces. May function in place of a cell wall or may help bacterial viruses adhere.
  21. Polar flagellum (monotrichous flagellation)
    When a bacteria has a single flagella on one end.
  22. Chemotaxis
    • Behavior towards a specific compounds.
    • Positive - it is attracted to the molecule.
    • Negative - it is repelled by the molecule.
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microbiology midterm
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