Study Guide 3

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  1. 14.  List fundamental characteristics that all living have in common?
  2. 14.  What are the 2 main points expressed by Charles Darwin in his book, Origin of Species.
  3. 14.  According to Darwin, what is natural selection?  Which members of a populations are considered to be the "fittest"?
  4. 14.  What are fossils?  How are they usually formed?  What are some examples of "past traces" of life?
  5. 14.  What observations did Darwin make about the organisms in diverse of South America?
  6. 14.  How did visiting the Galapagos Islands influence Darwin?
  7. 14.  Why are "Darwin's finches" considered to be an important examples of evolution?
  8. 14.  What are vestigial structures? Give 2 examples.
  9. 14.  What is artificial selection? How does it differ from natural selection?
  10. 14.  List and briefly describe the types of evidence upon which current ideas about evolution are based?
  11. 14.  What are the 4 postulates which support Darwin's theory of natural selection?
  12. 14.  Describe the experiments of John Endler on guppies?
  13. 14.  Define: morphology; homologous structures (also give an example); & embryology?
  14. 14.  What is the driving force of evolution?
  15. 14.  What is convergent evolution?  What are analogous structures?  Give an example.
  16. 14.  Is evolution occurring today?  If so, give an example.
  17. 15.  What is population genetics?
  18. 15.  What is the smallest biological unit that can evolve?
  19. 15.  Define: genes; phenotype; alleles; & gene pool.
  20. 15.  List and describe the 3 ways in which genetic variation can occur.  What role do mutations play in evolution?
  21. 15.  What is polymorphism? Give an example.
  22. 15.  What is micro-evolution?  List and describe the 5 agents of micro-evolution.
  23. 15.  How do insects/bacteria develop resistance to pesticides/antibiotics?
  24. 15.  Why is genetic variation in populations important?
  25. 15.  What is a "selection advantage"?  What role does this play in adaptation of a species?
  26. 15.  Compare the "bottleneck effect" with the "founder effect"?
  27. 15.  What criteria are used for mate selection in: (a) female choice; (b) combative ability; (c) assortative mating?
  28. 15.  What is inbreeding?  What are the possible consequences?
  29. 15.  Explain what is meant by "Darwinian fitness".
  30. 15.  List and describe the 3 modes of natural slection.
  31. 15.  What is genetic drift?  Which population size would show greater effects from genetic drift (large or small)?
  32. 15.  Explain why the dominant color of the peppered moth population changed between 1845 and 1895.
  33. 16.  What is biological definition of a species?
  34. 16.  How do pre-mating isolating mechanisms differ from post-mating isolating mechanisms?
  35. 16.  What is geographic isolation?  What is required before 2 populations truly become 2 separate species?
  36. 16.  List & define the pre-mating isolating mechanisms involved in reproductive isolation.
  37. 16.  List & define the post-mating isolating mechanisms involved in reproductive isolation.
  38. 16.  How does allopatric speciation differ from sympatric speciation?
  39. 16.  Why is speciation more likely to occur in a small, isolated population than in a large population?
  40. 16.  What is polyploidy?  How does is lead to speciation in plants?
  41. 16.  What is adaptive radiation? Give an example.
  42. 16.  What are some possible reasons for the lack of transitional forms in the fossil record?
  43. 16.  What is paedomorphosis?  Give an example.
  44. 17.  Describe the major ways in which fossils are typically formed.
  45. 17.  How can radiometric dating be used to determine the age of a fossil?
  46. 17.  What event typically marks the end of a period or an era?  What is meant by the term "mass extinction"?
  47. 17.  What was the significance of the experiments of: (a) Louis Pastuer on spontaneous generation?  (b) Miller and Urey on prebiotic evolution?
  48. 17.  (a) What factor(s) was/were responsible for the mas extinctions of the Permian Period? (b) The Cretaceous Period? (c) What my be causing another mass extinction in the present time?
  49. 17.  What are some other explanations for the mass extinctions of the Cretaceous Period?
  50. 17.  Explain why rapid speciation usually follows mass extinction.
  51. 17.  What is meant by the term "Cambrian explosion"?  How was it different from other episodes of rapid speciation?
  52. 17.  Explain why climatic change (especially cooling) is considered to be a major factor involved in mass extinctions.
  53. 17.  What is considered continental drift?  List the geological processes which are likely to occur at plate boundaries.
  54. 17.  What effects did the formation of Pangea have of habitates and organisms?
  55. 17.  What was the major effect on organisms of the break-up of Pangea?
  56. 17.  Briefly describe the Precambrian Period.  What does the most significant development during this time and how did it affect the future of the earth?
  57. 17.  Explain how the cellular organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts probably developed (endosymbiont theory)?
  58. 17.  How did the first plans adapt to living on dry land?
  59. 17.  What major reproductive advantages did the gymnosperms  and the angiosperms have over the bryophates and the seedless vascular plants?
  60. 17.  (a) Describe the first animals to live on land. (b) Describe lobe-finned fish.
  61. 17.  Why was the development of an amniotic egg a crucial step in severing the dependence of animals on water for their reproduction?
  62. 17.  What advancements in reproduction developed in  the mammals?  Why were they able to survive the catastrophic events of the Cretaceous period that killed the dinosaurs?
  63. 17.  List 4 characteristics that most primates have in common.
  64. 17.  Who was "Ardi" and where was she found?  Who was "Lucy" and where was she found?
  65. 17.  Why was Homo habilis given the nickname "handy man"?
  66. 17.  What is the multi-regional hypothesis and how does it differ from the "out-of-Africa" hypothesis "replacement hypothesis)?
  67. 17.   Why did the Neanderthals die out?
  68. 17.  What is cultural evolution?  How has this affected the human population over time?
  69. 17.  Why are the Cro-Magnon people considered to have been more sophisticated than the Neanderthals?
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Study Guide 3
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