Science Chapter 10

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  1. Electricity
    A form of energy that results from the interaction of charged particles, such as electrons or protons.
  2. Static Charge (Static Electricity)
    Electric charge that remains "static", or doesn't move
  3. Charging by Friction
    • The transfer of electric charge by rubbing or friction
    • e.g. combing hair
  4. Electrostatic Series
    • Used to determine the kind of electric charge produced on each substance when two substances are rubbed together.
    • (Table on page 405)
    • Substances high on the list lose electrons and become positively charged
    • Substances lower on the list gain electrons and become negatively charged
    • The closer two substances are on the list, the weaker the ability to transfer electrons.
  5. Insulator
    • A material where electrons can not move easily from one atom to another
    • e.g. rubber
  6. Conductor
    • A material where electrons can move from one atom to another
    • e.g. metals
  7. Semiconductor
    • Materials where electrons can move fairly well
    • e.g. silcon
    • Electrons do not move as well in semiconductor than in conductor
  8. Ground
    • Something that can hold a very large number of electrons easily
    • Grounds like earth absorb the electrons and the electrons travel to their destination
  9. Electroscope
    • A device for detecting the presence of an electric charge
    • Types: Pith ball electroscope, Metal leaf electroscope
  10. Charging by Contact
    • Generating a charge on a neutral object by touching it with a charged object
    • Object that becomes charged by contact, always gets the same charge that is on the object the charges it (e.g. negative rod touches neutral pith ball, pith ball becomes negatively charged)
  11. Laws of Electric Charges
    • Laws that describe how two objects interact electrically
    • Like charges repel
    • Opposite charges attract
    • Charged and neutral objects attract
  12. Electric Field
    • A property of the space around a charged object, where the effect of its charge can be felt by other objects
    • Produces an electric force on any other objects in its field
    • Greater net charge means stronger electric field
    • The greater the distance from a charged object, the weaker the electric field of the object it
  13. Induced Charge Separation
    • Movement of electrons in an object caused by the electric field of a nearby charged object
    • Without direct contact between the substance and the object
  14. Ion
    • A charged atom or group of atoms
    • Made when raindrops and hailstones collide in a cloud (friction between raindrops and hailstones)
  15. Lighting Rod
    • A metal sphere or point that is attached to the highest part of a building and connected to the ground
    • Electrical charges find their way to the ground through lightning rods
  16. Electrostatic Precipitator
    Type of cleaner that removes unwanted particles and liquid droplets from a flow of gas
  17. Van De Graaff Generator
    • A device that accumulates very large charges
    • These generators have been used as atom smashers since the 1930s since they can accelerate particles to very high speeds
  18. Radiation Dosimeter
    A device the detects and measures exposure to radiation
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Science Chapter 10
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