Psychology Exam 2

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  1. Nature
    Genes, DNA, biology
  2. Nurture
    • The way someone is raised, environment
    • - genes can be expressed or remain "off" depending of the environment
  3. genes and experience interact
    hereditary deals the cards, environment plays the hand
  4. epigenetics
    study of the molecular mechanisms by which environments trigger genetic expression
  5. behavior geneticists
    explore the genetic and environmental roots of human differences
  6. Evolutionary geneticists
    focus mostly on what makes us so alike as humans
  7. natural selection
    • organisms varied offspring compete for survival
    • certain biological and behavioral variations increase organisms reproductive and survival chances in their particular environment 
    • offspring that survive are likely to pass their specific traits on
    • over time, population traits may change
  8. mutations
    random errors in gene replication
  9. reproductive advantage
    • we want to pass on our genes 
    • men value beauty and youth
    • women value wealth and maturity
    • men want to reproduce widely, women want to reproduce wisely
  10. consciousness
    awareness of ourselves and our environment
  11. cognitive neuroscience
    study of the brain activity linked with our mental processes
  12. dual processing
    • conscious awareness of conscious processing and also unconscious sub processing
    • conscious and deliberate vs. unconscious and automatic
  13. blindsight
    • consciously seeing nothing but processing unconsciously 
    • visual perception track enables us to recognize things and to plan future actions 
    • visual action track guides moment to moment movements
  14. parallel processing
    • enables the mind to take care of routine business 
    • routine processes run in the background
  15. sequential processing
    solves new problems which requires focused attention
  16. selective attention
    focus of awareness
  17. inattentional blindness
    • attention is powerfully selective 
    • being blind to everything except a tiny sliver of visual stimuli
  18. Circadian rythm
    • internal biological clock
    • changes with age - young adult night owls vs. older morning people
  19. alpha waves
    awake but relaxed brain waves
  20. hallucinations
    sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus
  21. delta waves
    asleep brain waves during nREM3
  22. REM sleep
    restful and restorative sleep
  23. sleep paralysis
    the body is internally aroused yet asleep and calm
  24. what affects sleep patterns?
    • genetically influenced
    • light affects production of melatonin
  25. sleep theories
    • sleep protects
    • sleep helps us recuperate
    • sleep helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the days experiences 
    • sleep feeds creative thinking
    • sleep supports growth
  26. effects of sleep loss
    • predictor of depression - REM helps process emotions 
    • weight gain - increases hungry hormone and decreases hunger suppressing hormone 
    • more sleep boosts immune system 
    • slow reactions
  27. sleep disorders
    • insomnia - persistent problems falling or staying asleep
    • narcolepsy - sudden attacks of overwhelming sleepiness 
    • sleep apnea - stop breathing during sleep
  28. psychoactive drugs
    chemicals that change perceptions and moods
  29. tolerance
    the users brain chemistry adapts to offset the drug effect - the user requires larger and larger doses to experience the same effects
  30. addiction
    the person craves and uses the substance despite its adverse consequences
  31. withdrawal
    undesirable side effects associated with stopping a drug
  32. depressants
    • calm neural activity and slow body functions 
    • alcohol and barbiturates
  33. alcohol
    • slows sympathetic nervous system activity 
    • disrupts memory formation
    • binge drinking can kill brain cells and reduce the birth of new cells
    • can shrink the brain 
    • expectations influence behavior
  34. barbiturates
    • sometimes prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety
    • in larger doses it can impair memory and judgement
  35. opiates
    • opium, morphine, heroine 
    • when flooded with opiates, the brain stops producing natural opiates called endorphins, causing withdrawal
  36. stimulant
    • excites neural activity and speeds up body functions
    • includes caffine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy
    • can be addictive
  37. nicotine
    • highly addictive 
    • diminish appetite and boost alertness 
    • calm anxiety and reduce sensitivity to pain
  38. cocaine
    • produces a rush of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine 
    • heightens reactions and aggression
  39. meth
    triggers release of dopamine
  40. ecstasy/MDMA
    • triggers dopamine and releases stored serotonin and blocks its reuptake 
    • dehydrating effect can cause overheating
    • suppresses immune system, impairs memory, slows thought, and disrupts sleep
  41. hallucinogens
    distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
  42. LSD
    • mood and expectations color the experience 
    • hallucinations are strikingly similar to near death experiences
  43. marijuana
    • mild hallucinogen, amplifying sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes and smells 
    • also relaxes, disinhibits, and produces a high
    • impairs motor coordination, perceptual skills, and reaction time
  44. influences of drug use
    • biological - hereditary - genes identified for alcoholism 
    • feeling that life is meaningless
    • peer pressure
  45. Brain development
    • 3-6 most rapid brain growth occurs in the frontal lobes 
    • last areas to develop are the association areas linked with thinking, memory, and language
    • use it or lose it pruning system for brain neurons
    • better environment leads to heavier and thicker brain cortex
  46. critical period
    exposure is required for a skill like language to develop
  47. Motor development
    • genes guide motor development
    • before necessary maturation, neither pleading nor punishment will produce results with skills such as walking and toilet training
  48. Brain maturation and infant memory
    • before age 3, the brain does not remember much 
    • the hippocampus and frontal lobes continue to mature into adolescence 
    • although the mind does not consciously remember, connections are still made
  49. cognition
    refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
  50. schemas
    concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences
  51. assimilate
    interpret new experiences in terms of our current understandings
  52. accommodate
    incorporate new information gathered by new experiences
  53. sensorimotor stage
    • birth-2
    • babies take in the world through their senses and actions - through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing and grabbing
  54. object permanence
    • the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived
    • stops at about 8 months
  55. preoperational stage
    • 2-7
    • too young to perform mental operations
  56. conservation
    the principal that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape
  57. egocentric
    difficulty perceiving things from another's point of view
  58. Theory of Mind
    being able to see the perspective of others
  59. concrete operational stage
    • begin to grasp conservation 
    • become able to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation
  60. Autism spectrum disorder
    • poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to let us take another's viewpoint 
    • 4 in 5 are boys
  61. Formal operational stage
    • 12- 
    • hypothetical propositions and deduce consequences
  62. stranger anxiety
    • infants prefer known caregivers to strangers 
    • develops at about the same time as object permanence
  63. attachment
    • emotional bond to a caregiver 
    • infants become attached to those who are comfortable and familiar
  64. secure attachment
    • children are secure when mother is there and become distressed when she leaves
    • sensitive and responsive mothers
  65. insecure attachment
    • anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships
    • less likely to explore and may cling to mothers
    • wen she leaves they cry and remain upset or are indifferent
    • insensitive and unresponsive mothers
  66. temperment
    • persons characteristic emotional activity and intensity 
    • genetically influenced
    • biologically rooted temperament helps form our enduring personality
  67. basic trust
    • a sense that the world is predictable and reliable commonly had by securely attached children
    • attributed to early parenting
  68. effects of deprivation of attachment
    • babies who are abused or extremely neglected are often withdrawn, frightened, even speechless 
    • children growing up under adversity are resilient 
    • abuse breeds abuse
  69. effects of day care
    • research shows no major impact of maternal employment of children's development, attachment, and achievements
    • quality day care with warm, supportive interactions with adults in a sage healthy and stimulating environment works
  70. Authoritarian parenting style
    parents impose rules and expect obedience
  71. permissive parenting style
    • parents submit to their children's desires 
    • few demands and little punishments
  72. authoritative
    • demanding and responsive
    • set rules but encourage open discussion and allow exceptions 
    • considered the best parenting style
  73. puberty
    sexual maturation
  74. boys - early puberty
    • more popular, self-assured, and athletic
    • more alcohol use, delinquency, and premature sex
  75. girls - early puberty
    association with older adolescents or teasing and sexual harassment
  76. brain development during puberty
    • the brain starts pruning unused neurons and connections and myelin grows 
    • maturation of the frontal lobe lags behind emotional limbic system - impulsiveness
  77. Developing reasoning power
    compare ideals with reality and reason hypothetically
  78. development of moral reasoning
    • preconventional - obey rules to avoid punishment or gain reward
    • conventional - uphold laws to gain social approval or maintain social order 
    • postconventional - actions reflect self-defined ethical principals
  79. Moral intuition
    • quick gut feeling or actively laden intuitions
    • feeling trigger morals
  80. Moral Action
    • social influences affect morals 
    • as thinking matures, behavior also becomes less selfish 
    • moral actions feeds moral attitudes
  81. search for identity
    each stage of life has its own crisis that needs resolving
  82. identity
    self definition that unifies the various selves into a consistent and comfortable sense of who one is
  83. social identity
    self vs. the group
  84. intimacy
    the ability to form emotionally close relationships
  85. adolescent identity
    • key task of adolescence is to achieve a purpose 
    • young american's self esteem falls during the early to mid-teen years
  86. parent and peer relationships
    • adolescence is a time of diminishing parent relationships and growing peer influence
    • peers have more influence during adolescence
    • peer approval matters
  87. emerging adulthood
    • not yet settled stage of life 
    • adolescents are taking longer to establish themselves as adults
  88. sensation
    sensory receptors detecting sensory input
  89. perception
    process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information
  90. bottom-up processing
    start at the sensory receptors and works up to higher levels of processing
  91. top-down processing
    constructs perceptions from the sensory input by drawing on our experience and expectations
  92. Transduction
    • process of converting one form of energy into another that your brain can use
    • our senses receive sensory stimulation, transform that stimulation into neural impulses and deliver the neural info to our brain
  93. absolute thresholds
    minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste, or odor 50% of the time
  94. signal detection theory
    predicts when we will detect weal signals
  95. subliminal
    • below the absolute threshold
    • subliminal sensation is a fact
    • subliminal persuasion is not
  96. prime
    an unnoticed image or word that can reach the visual cortex and affect your response
  97. difference thresholds
    minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time
  98. Weber's Law
    two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage
  99. perceptual set
    a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that affects what we hear, taste, feel, and see
  100. context effects
    images look different in different contexts
  101. motivation and emotion
    emotions affect how we see things
  102. the stimulus input: light energy
    light and color are pulses of electromagnetic energy
  103. wavelength
    • the distance from one wave peak to the next 
    • determines hue - the color we experience
  104. intensity
    the amount of energy in light waves influences brightness
  105. the process of the eye
    • light enters through the cornea which bends the light to provide focus 
    • light passes through the pupil, a small adjustable opening which is surrounded by the iris which controls the size of the pupil 
    • the lens focuses incoming light into an image on the retina which is a multi-layer tissue on the eyeballs inner surface 
    • the lens focuses the rays by accommodating its curvature and thickness
  106. rods
    • receptor cell in the eye
    • peripheral vision, no color, remain sensitive in dim light, share a single bipolar cell
  107. cones
    • receptor cell in the eye
    • color, detail, center of the retina
  108. process of the optic nerves
    • rods and cones send info to bipolar cells which send information to ganglion cells whose axons twine together to form the optic nerve 
    • carries information to the brain where the thalamus distributes
  109. blind spot
    • the place where the optic nerve leaves the eye
    • no receptor cells
  110. fovea
    retina's area of central focus
  111. feature detections
    • specialized neurons in the occipital lobe's visual cortex receive info from ganglion cells in the retina 
    • respond to specific visual features 
    • face perception differs from object perceptions
  112. parallel processing
    • doing many things at once 
    • to analyze a visual scene, the brain divides it into subdimensions and works on each aspect simultaneously
    • brain interprets the constructed image based on stored info
  113. color vision
    • color is a construct of the mind 
    • objects reject certain wavelengths which the eyes see and the mind interprets as color
  114. young-Helmholtz tricolor theory
    • color receptors do their magic in teams of three 
    • red, green, and blue
    • colorblindness results from lacking functioning red or green sensitive cones
  115. opponent-process theory
    some neurons are "turned on" by one color but "turned off" by its opponent
  116. gestalt
    • "form" or "whole" 
    • we filter incoming info and construct perceptions
  117. figure-ground relationship
    perceives objects as distinct from its surroundings
  118. grouping
    • organize the figure into a meaningful form 
    • proximity - group of nearby figures 
    • continuity - perceive smooth, continuous patterns instead of discontinuous ones
    • closure - fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object
  119. depth perception
    enables us to estimate an objects distance from us
  120. binocular cues
    • judging distance with both eyes 
    • the greater the retinal disparity, or difference between two images, the closer the object
  121. monocular cues
    • depth cues available to each eye individually
    • relative size - smaller figures must be farther away
    • interposition - one thing blocks part of another
  122. perceptual constancy
    recognize objects without being deceived by changes in their color, brightness, shape, or size
  123. color constancy
    • experience of color depends on an object's context
    • we see color thanks to our brain's computations of the light reflected by an object relative to the objects surrounding it
  124. brightness constancy
    • perceive an object as having a constant brightness even while its illumination varies 
    • depends on relative luminescence - the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings
  125. shape constancy
    • shape seems to change based on angle but really does not
    • brain learns to associate different views of an object
  126. size constancy
    shapes have a constant size independent of their distance
  127. visual interpretation
    how important to perception is experience?
Card Set
Psychology Exam 2
flashcards for modules 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 15 and 16
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