Muscular System II

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  1. What are the sources of energy for muscle contraction?
    • ATP
    • ADP
    • Creatine Phosphate
    • Glycogen
    • Fatty Acids
  2. What is good/bad about ATP for an energy source?
    very little stored
  3. What is good/bad about ADP for an energy source?
    abundant but not as much energy available as ATP
  4. How do you get ATP to become ADP?
    find a phosphate
  5. What is good/bad about Creatine Phosphate for an energy source?
    generates ATP quickly but doesn't last long
  6. What is good/bad about Glycogen for an energy source?
    has readily available sources but takes a while to process
  7. What is good/bad about fatty acids for an energy source?
    abundant source in adipose tissue
  8. What is the best energy source for muscle contraction?
    fatty acids
  9. What are the two classes of strength in muscle contractions?
    • "all or none" action
    • summation
  10. What are "all or none" action contractions?
    contractions that apply to a single muscle fiber motor unit
  11. What are summation contractions?
    the whole muscle contracting at varying strengths
  12. What are the types of summation contractions?
    • spatial summation
    • temporal summation
  13. What is tetany?
    when a muscle stays in contraction
  14. What is tetanus?
    when a muscle has reached the peak of maximum contraction and stays there
  15. What is HYPP?
    • Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis
    • occurs in horses
    • an overabundance of blood potassium
  16. What is grass tetany?
    • low level of blood magnesium and calcium
    • occurs in ruminants
  17. What is PSSM?
    • Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy
    • abnormal storage of starch
    • occurs in horses
  18. Concentric contractions:
    shortening (flexing)
  19. Eccentric contractions:
    lengthening (extension)
  20. Isometric contractions:
    same length but tension changes
  21. Isotonic contractions:
    length changes but tension stays the same
  22. What is rigor?
    no ATP for the actin & myosin to branch off
  23. What is rigor mortis?
    no ATP because of death
  24. Tone:
    when an animal is relaxed
  25. What is the main difference between skeletal and cardiac muscle contractions?
    increase in intercellular calcium for a longer period of time in cardiac muscles
  26. What drives smooth muscle contraction?
  27. How do you determine contractile properties?
    • look at:
    • myosin ATPase and oxidative capacity
  28. What are the types of muscle fibers?
    • Type I (dark)
    • Type IIA (intermediate)
    • Type IIB (light)
  29. Which are the fast-twitch fibers?
    • Type IIA
    • Type IIB
    • white fibers
  30. What are the slow-twitch fibers?
    • Type I
    • red fibers
  31. What type of muscle fibers is almost devoid of mitochondria?
    Type IIB
  32. How can muscle fibers be modified?
    with training
  33. What type of running relies on Type IIB fibers?
  34. What type of running relies on Type IIA fibers?
    middle-distance running
  35. What type of running relies on Type I fibers?
    long-distance running
  36. What is the purpose of the stay apparatus in horses?
    • allows horses to rest while standing
    • conserves energy
    • more efficient for flight response
  37. What makes up the stay apparatus?
    • locks hock and stifle
    • check ligaments in front limbs
Card Set
Muscular System II
farm anatomy & physiology
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