History 110 Midterm

  1. Lao Tzu
    • What/Who: Founder of Taoism, Old Master
    • When: Around 300 BCE
    • Where: China
    • Historical Significance: Founder of Taoism, one of the principle ways of thought in China. Refers to the way, and contrasts Confucianism. Believes in the Innate good in people. Some people say Lau Tzu did not exist, but a myth.
  2. Siddhartha Gautama
    • What/Who: Also called Gautama Buddha; scholar; founder of Buddhism
    • When: 566 BCE
    • Where: India
    • Historical Significance: Did something called the great renunciation. Sat by a tree for 49 days and founded Buddhism after obtaining nirvana (one with the universe). Devoted the remainder of life for teaching Buddhism. Did not question/challenge the Indian thoughts in Samsara and Karma
  3. Five Basic (Cardinal) Relations
    • What/Who: Important Ideas behind Confucianism
    • When: 551 BCE
    • Where: China
    • Historical Significance: Principles behind Confucianism, ruler to minister, father to son, husband to wife, older brother to younger brother and friend to friend. Important as it puts the Emperor at the top and discusses leading by example. Respect very important in this system. Still around today
  4. Taizong
    • What/Who: Also called Li Shi Min, Emperor
    • When: 626-649
    • Where: China
    • Historical Significance: Important in persuading his father Li Yuan to rebel against the Sui dynasty. Helped with introduction of Buddhism.
  5. Gaozu
    • Who: First emperor of the T'ang Dynasty. Also called Li Yuan
    • When: 618
    • Where: China
    • Historical Significance: Start of the T'ang Dynasty, one of the most brilliant in Chinese history. Overthrew the Sui Dynasty.
  6. Fa-hsien
    • What/Who: Chinese Buddhist Pilgrim
    • When: 410
    • Where: India-China
    • Historical Significance: First recorded Chinese monk to travel to India to collect and study the cannons of Buddhism. He starter a movement that lasted 3 centuries. While Buddhism eventually became less prominent in India, became very important in China and is still around today.
  7. Koryo Dynasty
    • What/Who: Dynasty that reined Korea
    • When: 918-1392
    • Where: Korea
    • Historical Significance: Dynasty for which Korea was named. It was during this dynasty the Mongols had a powerful empire. The Koryo dynasty married kings to mongol daughters.
  8. Amaterasu
    • What/Who: The sun God in Japan
    • When: 500
    • Where: Japan
    • Historical Significance: Related to the emperor (the emperor is a direct descendant). Very important in Shintoism and the reason for why the empire is important and kept in place. Begins Japan's imperial line.
  9. Shinto
    • What/Who: Main religion in Japan
    • When: 660BCE
    • Where: Japan
    • Historical Significance: Main religion in Japan. In touch with nature and still around today. Important in families and dictates the kami (spirit)
  10. Fujiwara
    • What/Who: Mountain, Ancestral deity of Mountain
    • When: 341-343
    • Historical Significance: Had a dynasty during this time (the family). Very wealthy family with a powerful ancestral deity. Was able to enter the royal family by using money/marriage.
  11. Samurai
    • What/Who: A Japanese Knight
    • When: 702-1900
    • Where: Japan
    • Historical Significance: Powerful knights with honour as a code. Supported by the bushido, a military code. Helped by lords called the dayno. Very important in fighting off the Mongols. Were to supply own weapons.
  12. bushido
    • What/Who: Code of the Samurai
    • When: 1200-1900
    • Where: Japan
    • Historical Significance: Honor code of the samurai, means honor bound. This very important especially when fighting off the Mongols. The Samurai were bound to the lords.
  13. Shogun
    • What/Who: Military Leader
    • When: 12th - mid 19th century
    • Where: Japan
    • Historical Significance: End of a major war between two clans yielded the title shogun. The title shogun was important and used until the mid 19th century. This title gave the owner supreme military power.
  14. Minamoto
    • What/Who: The first shogun
    • When: End of the Twelfth century
    • Where: Japan
    • Historical significance: Final victor of a conflict between major clans in Japan. Emperor appointed him Shogun. He was the first Shogun. This title meant he had supreme military power.
  15. Bakufu
    • What/Who: Tent government system
    • When: End of the twelfth century
    • Where: Japan
    • Historical Significance: Military administration area. This was important during the time of the Shogun and implemented by Minamoto.
  16. Taika Reform
    • What/Who: The great reform in Japan
    • When: 645
    • Historical Significance: made the ruler a heavenly emperor. This reform abolished land ownership and adopted the Chinese tax system. Women lost ground because of this reform, and were shut out of succession after this reform.
  17. Nicheren
    • What/Who: A monk
    • When: 1222-1282
    • Where: Japan
    • Historical Significance: Founded by a popular Buddhist sect. Opposed other sects. He preached that Japan is the land of the gods, and Japanese Buddhism is the only way.
  18. Genghis Khan
    • What: Ruler of the Mongols; World conqueror, Chief
    • When:1155-1227
    • Where: Mongol territory, near Russia and into Asia
    • Historical Significance: Genghis Khan was a war leader that greatly expanded the Mongol territory and to this day is a very significant figure. He was a very successful conquester, not only a physical warfare expert he also was very good at psychological warfare committing acts of cruelty. Devised the first Mongol script.
  19. Kubilai Khan
    • What: Chief/ruler of the Mongol Empire
    • When: 1260 - 1294
    • Where: Mongol Empire,
    • Historical Significance: Kubilai was the grandson of Genghis Khan. Established a new capital and founded the Yuan dynasty. The Yuan were very open and interested in Trade.
  20. Mongke
    • What/Who: The fourth Grand Khan/ruler of the mongals
    • When: 1251-1259
    • Where: Mongal empire
    • Historical Significance: Fourth Grand Khan of the Mongol dynasty. Completed the conquest of China. Tended to be aloof with dealing with his subject population.
  21. Batu
    • What/Who: Mongol Ruler
    • When: 1227-1255
    • Where: Mongolia
    • Historical Significance: Grandson of Genghis Khan. Conquested across Russia and founded the Golden Horde
  22. Uzbek Khan
    • Who: Ruler of the Mongol dynasty, grand Khan
    • When: 131-1343
    • Where: Mongolia
    • Historical Significance: Longest ruler over the Golden Horde. Golden Horde reached height under Uzbek, forced entire horde to convert to Islam.
  23. Marco Polo
    • Who/What: Explorer/Merchant
    • When: 1254-1324
    • Where: Italy to Mongolia
    • Historical Significance: A Merchant that travelled to Mongolia to meet Kublai Khan. Very important in introducing Europe to Asia and demonstrated important aspects of Mongol rule.
  24. Golden Horde
    • What/Who: Mongol Khanite
    • When:1241- 15th century
    • Where: Mongolia
    • Historical Significance: The Golden Horde was very important as it became the main region of the Mongol empire. Reached its peak during the Uzbek rein, and was converted to Islam.
  25. Han Yu
    • What/Who: Scholar
    • When: 786-824
    • Where: China
    • Historical Significance: Han Yu was a defender of Confucianism and was opposed to Buddhism. This was important because it gave insight into the T'ang dynasty. While it was said they were supportive of Buddhism, obviously some were against that.
  26. Ibn Battuta
    • Who/What: Traveller
    • When: 1304-1369
    • Where: Morocco
    • Historical Significance: Met with Uzbek Khan and thought very good things about the Mongol empire. This is important because it gave an important perspective into the Mongol dynasty. Both were Muslim and had an appreciation for learning.
  27. Five pillars of faith
    • What/Who: Important principles behind Islam Faith
    • When: Beginning of the 7th Century
    • Where: Mecah, Arabia
    • Historical Significance: The five pillars are, Profession of the faith, Prayer 5 times a day in the direction of Mecah, Fasting durin the holy month of Ramadan, Charity, and Hajj(something each Muslim should do once during their life). Important because the founding principles of this religion.
  28. Muhammad
    • What/Who: Prophet of God, merchant
    • When: 570-632
    • Where: Arabia, Mecah
    • Historical significance: Very important in the Islam religion. Has many visitations with the Angel Gabriel and is the word of God. Marks the beginning of the Islam calendar because of these visitations. The last of the prophets.
  29. kentōshi
    • What/Who: Envoys to T'ang China
    • When: 630-838
    • Where: Japan to China
    • Historical Significance: These envoys to China were to seek out the Chinese way. This is very important because Japan are the only Asian country to actively seek China. These envoys reformed the Japanese country.
Card Set
History 110 Midterm
All things History and 110