Viruses 3.2

  1. pandemics only occurred starting 1900

    development of vaccine in 1950s halted spread
  2. initial symptoms: fever, chills, back pain, loss of appetite nausea, infection 

    progressed symptoms: recurring fever, jaundice, internal bleeding, possible fatality
    vector disease: yellow fever
  3. urban strain
    • - 1930
    • - aedes aegypti
  4. -jungle strain: transmitted among monkeys and humans involved in timber cutting and agriculture
    • -1950
    • - haemagogus aegypti
  5. - like yellow and dengue fevers, they believed came from ___

    - retrovirus similar to ____ exist in domesticated rats and monkeys

    - _____ could have favored mutations
    • - animals
    • - HIV
    • - Natural Selection

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  6. first discovered in Korea among soldiers in Korean American War
    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    more rain = more food, more food = more mice, hentavirus spreads through scant, inhaled hantavirus harmful to lungs
  7. agents that induces genetic effects (drugs, chemicals, viruses)

    How is transmitted?

    mother- child transmission: through placenta to infect fetus
  8. What are the characteristics of herpesviruses? How is it transmitted?
    • - remain latent in body for long periods
    • - many genes to evade and adapt to immune system

    - body fluids
  9. What are the symptoms of cytomegalovirus? What is the appropriate treatment?
    • - neurological defects
    • - congenital defects
    • - fevers and weakened immune system

    - intravenous valganciclovir
  10. - "to creep" causes oral herpes cold sores around mouth and lips
    can cause _____, which is transmitted through oral secretions or lesions of sores (i.e. kissing, sharing food)
    Herpes Syndrome Virus Type 1

    HSV- 2
  11. causes genital herpes, sores around genitals or rectum transmission: sexual contact

    both HSV are contagious even without sores present through ________

    pregnant women with genital herpes can pass it on to their baby during birth
    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)- Type 2
  12. latin for "little red"

    postnatal rubella/ German/ 3-day measles
    rubella virus
  13. postnatal rubella

    congenital rubella syndrom (CRS)
    can result in _________
    rubella virus

    can result miscarriage, stillbirth and/ or fetal malformations
  14. TORCH series stands for

    Other Viruses (HIV, measles, etc.)



    Herpes simplex
  15. an uncontrolled, invasive growth of abnormal cells

    normal > ____> cancerous growth forms tumor >_____
    viruses and cancer

    • mutation results in cancer
    • tumors bud and spread throughout the budy
  16. is a localized accumulation of cells 

    noncancerous growth 

    interferes with f(x) of surrounding normal tissue
    neoplasma or tumor


    malignant, metastasize
  17. cancer spreads from primary site of cancer to other body parts of the body via _______

    often spreads to tissue

    Metastatic Cancer

    bloodstream or lymph system

    metastatic melanoma often spreads to tissue under the skin, lymph nodes, lungs, liver, brain and bone
  18. F. Peyton Rous
    1911- ____________ Rous sarcoma virus

    ______- virus capable of causing cancer
    sarcomas in chicken caused by

    oncogenic virus

    • - genetic mutations
    • - cellular damage from environmental chemicals (15% from viral infections)
  19. There are at least 6 known cancers:
    - most are _____stranded viruses
    - some are _____ sense RNA viruses
    Human Herpes Virus (HHV)Human Papillomavirus (HPV)Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

    • dS
    • (+)
  20. "proviruses"
     their genome is DNA, and is integrated into the host genome
    DNA Tumor Viruses
  21. Epstein- Barr Virus (EPV or HHV4), best understood human cancer virus which affects lymphocytes and epithelial cells

    ---discovery in African children, Burkitt's lymphoma, malignant, eventual destruction of the jaw
    Human Herpes Virus (HHV)
  22. _____---> Kaposi's Sarcoma
    ______ affects lymphocytes and epithelial/ endothelial cells in the blood vessels or lymphatic system
  23. ______- benign growth (ie warts) of epithelial cells, can turn into malignant carcinomas

    - infected cells but viral DNA remains free in cytoplasm of host 

    - Cancer HPV 8 and HVP 16, carcinoma of the uterine cervix
    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  24. causes inflammation of liver
    leads to 80% of all liver cancers
    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
  25. retroviruses, their genome is RNA, and is integrates into host genome
    RNA tumor viruses
  26. segments of DNA where the proteins produce by tumor viruses that cause uncontrolled cell division come from gene with potential to cause cancer
  27. How does infection by retrovirus occur?
    Receptor> endocytosis > copying of RNA by reverse transcriptase > displacement and degradation of RNA by virus encoded RNase H activity, provirus

    integration of double stranded DNA into host DNA
Card Set
Viruses 3.2